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Principles of Public Administration and their usage to positively advance Public fields by States

Public Administration Definition, Public Policy , Business Administration and Principles applied to positively advance the fields of Education, Transportation, Health care, community development, law enforcement, and environmental policies.


1.0 Introduction.
This article discusses how have principles of public administration been applied to positively advance each of the following fields: education, transportation, health care, community development, law enforcement, and environmental policy. Also, the article hypothesizes what would become of the aforementioned services in the absence of a public administration system.
The means by which public administration achieves its goals and the responsibilities vested on it are solely dependant on tactical principles and practices utilized to execute them. In order for the public administrators to achieve the set targets they must adhere to a set of orchestrated instruments or regulations by the government of the day so that they don’t deviate from the initial intended objectives. The public sector plays crucial roles in ensuring that the general populace is well tended to and that their individual rights are respected. The administrators of public policies are governors who are as well governed through established government principles, to ensure that they don’t compromise quality of vital aspects of public requirements. Policies implemented by the government to public administrators as devices though which the public sector is ale to reach out to the people. Principles codify value system that is intrinsically part of governments, social, political and legal arena. Through codified public policies governors adhere to the governing principles, upon which the responsibilities ascribed to the public governance are succinctly met.

2.0 Defining Public Administration.
Public Administration is the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy linked to pursuing the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice. In the past public administration was synonymous to government management, however, with increased vigor in participation of private sector into public matters some NGO’S committed to serve the public have joined the public sector. Public administration has gained credibility over time owing to change in governance and management process. Moreover, due to the sensitivity of the activities carried out by Public administrators and the participation of private sector change in quality of the services offered by the government became inevitable. The public servants attain knowledge and skills of executing duties in a program through trained policy analysts who are thoroughly founded with the background information on how to manage the public resources. Through public servants, interests of the general public are served in a satisfactory cost-effective manner the public servants are mandated to oversee each implemented activity on daily.

Generally, public administration gears its efforts towards understanding public entities and how they interrelate with others and the immediate world. Organizations that work under public administration are organized and managed to realize deliberately structured goals in the near future. Through public policy programs the government responds to the needs and interests of the Nation through satisfying them with the available resources .

3.0 Principles of Public Administration.
Public administration is a complex process, it involves social, economical, legal and political matters al interwoven together. Due to the complexity of its nature, management and regulation of the public sector becomes a hurdle. In order for the public administration to be well regulated and governed bracket laws had to be implemented to cover all spheres and aspects of the sector. A unifying common law to govern public sector has been a very controversial issue in the U.S, this could be accrued to the governors’ reluctance to be restricted by statutes which could tether the added advantages associated with the public sector. With time however, due to emerge of democratic tendencies elements that initiate good management and governance have been embraced. Political evolution has led to accord on the key principles that can be implemented to ensure that the services delivered to the public by the government are excellent.
The key identified principles are:-

3.1. Reliability and predictability: This principle declares that in order for the government initiative in form of services or practice to be deemed as satisfactory it must be reliable by being consisted and accurate in meeting the potential needs for which it was intended for. The government programs should be predictable a factor that can only be attained through consisted effort whereby the government agencies in charge of the programs don’t fluctuate in executing their duties in a systematic manner. On the same note the programs implemented by the government to serve the needs of public should have legal certainty or judicial security.

3.2. Openness and transparency: The government serves the society through tax levies and other customs exerted on them through added costs. In return, the government is supposed to govern the obtained resources, plan and allocate them to various public programs in order to satisfy the public needs better. The public is aware that the government derives its funds from their resources, so it becomes increasingly important for the public to know hoe the government tis using their resources to sponsor public programs. In order for the public to trust the government of the day, the government avails all the necessary details concerning the programs so that the government doesn’t appear to have creepy motives

3.3. Accountability: The government sponsored programs are normally accountable for all activities and procedures carried out in their programs which are geared towards public satisfaction. Accountability, per se is whereby the government justifies the actions it pursues in its endeavor to serve the public and at the same time taking responsibility for the actions it pursues in achieving its objectives whether they have positive or negative implications.

3.4. Efficiency and effectiveness: Efficiency is a principle employed by the government sponsored programs to ensure that all the resources at the disposal of the government are utilized without wastage of time, increased expense or effort wastage. When the government embraces efficiency in its procedures it becomes effectual in meeting public needs without wasting time or effort or expense.

Public administration ideals and doctrine principles have enhanced better performance in public sector creating union amongst the many areas that need to be administered properly in order to serve the public better. In the U.S the government has been able to embrace the key principles vital for ensuing that all the programs that serve public interest run coherently and are able to meet the desired needs of the public. Each sector served by the government becomes effective in meeting the social needs by embracing the principles of public administration.

4.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in education sector
The administration of primary and secondary public education in the United States is conducted primarily by state governments in conjunction with local school districts . All states with the exception of Hawaii employ the structure of local school districts as the direct administrators of public primary and secondary education . The significance of education to the U.S populace was evidenced by inclusion in all 50 state constitutions of a clause. . This clause mandated the government of the day to pursue the responsibility of offering quality education by ensuring that the education programs are properly managed through school districts.

In the U.S State involvement in public education has grown significantly during the twentieth century for instance there has been additional programs implemented in the education sector such as. Computerized teaching programs, advanced vocational training, all inclusive education for the physically challenged and many more. Americans view education as a key element of civic engagement in a democratic society and as the basis for skill training necessary for gainful employment in a rapidly changing economy. Over time the government bodies in charge of education have become efficient through accountability for all the processes and procedures they carry out. Each department of the U.S education sector carries out research on how to improve public governance and gives the recommendations to the state in order for it to assimilate them in its operations. The general public has continuously made demands on improvement of educational sector a fact that has made the U.S government to step up its efficiency in delivering public education through integrations of, vocational education, improving curriculum and facilities, and increasing teacher preparedness through specialized training programs.

The principle of transparency has been embraced in the educational realm by allowing the public to have access to government reports concerning educational matters. The involvement of the general public in school governance through educational boards has helped a great deal in enhancing the educational program efficiency in meeting the needs of the citizens as well.

5.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in Transport sector.
The government ensures that it’s well aware of the current operations on the roads, railroads, at ports and airports at all the times through a systematic regulatory mechanism of the transport sector in order to boost efficiency through better management and operations. Some key sectors like the airport, water ways are prone to attack by the terrorists hence the government utilizes non-intrusive, automatic sensors, computers and communications in order to extract the necessary information and facts that could be used to deduce security threat.

On the road sector the government employs the principles of efficiency to enhance effectiveness through gathering and processing system use and condition information, forecasting conditions that will hamper travel, optimizing traffic signal and ramp meter timing based on actual conditions so that vehicle stops and delay are minimized, identifying and responding quickly to accidents and other incidents before queues can build, and coordinating traffic operations with other operators, including support to commercial and transit fleet managers for efficient routing around incidents/closures or for oversize trucks and hazardous cargoes. In addition to system management purposes, the data can also be used for performance measurement, planning, and traveler information.

The government has increased efficiency of the transport sector by enhancing better user services by providing vital information such as en-route information and route guidance, and travel services. The information availed to the travelers, shippers and fleet operators help them to obtain instant information for planning routes and selecting modes before and during trips . Through the traffic police, the government is able to make roads safe for commuters, with immediate notification of collisions, road and lane closures, and other conditions that might impact highway, transit or fleet operations. The over speeding road users, drunkards and the people violating traffic rules are taken under the custody of traffic police to ensure that they don’t cause damage to other road users. Incase of a break down road users get informed on alternative routes and travel options . The government has also made the transport sector reliable for users and the travelers who seek fun by providing information on travel destinations and accommodations, such as gas stations, lodging, attractions, and restaurants. The general public is able to benefit massively by operational efficiency implemented by the public sector through road infrastructure development and enhanced transport facilities.

The transport sector is able to account for losses experienced through the transport sector; the government has implemented technologies real-time traffic, road, weather and other system conditions . The equipments used to enhance smooth flow of traffic and incident detection include detector loops, closed circuit TV, vehicle probes, and other sensors . The management of transport sector ensures that there are centers in place that are used to process incoming traffic information and helps the sector to respond promptly to any occurring incidences, by alerting the general public and also taking measures to ensure the occurring incidences don’t stop the general flow of transport and communication. Computerized traffic signal systems, ramp meters, rail grade crossing and other traffic control systems have been implemented to help the transport sector manage the system of commuting.

6.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in Community Development sector.

The government is actively involved in community based programmes through agencies that help the community by strengthening the health, safety, self-reliance and economic vitality of individuals and families. The public administrations reach out to the community through partnerships to provide service and material backing. From the level of federal to the state level there are programs implemented to reach out to low-income and vulnerable people who are integral to the development of thriving communities . A program to cater for crime victims called Crime Victims Advocacy is reaches out to the community to cater for the needs of crime victims the program serves the community through the following methodologies: by foremost providing advocacy services to the affected victims of crime, this they do by needed services and resources the program also administers funds for community programs working with crime victims; assists communities in planning and implementing services for crime victims; and
Advising local and state government agencies of practices, policies, and priorities which impact crime victims. Victims of crime who feel that they have not been accorded justice or that their rights have been trodden on forward their grievances to the community advocacy to fight for them. Developmental Disabilities Council is a council which fights for the rights and well being of the disabled vulnerable community; it caters for their educational and physical needs and ensuring that they are well treated in their homes. This community based program is funded and managed by the federal state and trickles down to the other sectors of economy through community ramifications.

The principles of public administration employed to ensure that the community is well served by the federal state include efficiency through management agencies which scrutinize all the programs under community development to ensure that they execute the duties and tasks vested on them. This way the program becomes effective in meeting the needs of the community. Accountability is attained through auditing and generation of reports that are available for public and private viewing. Transparency in community development is attained through community members’ involvement the agencies blend and integrate their views with the desires of the potential communities that await their support.

Programs like Work First's Community Jobs. , and other work programs help the general populace to gain access to employment and get financially empowered to support the poor families. The young people who have vocational training are able to get jobs through such arrangements to minimize their reliance on welfare programs statistics indicate that more than a quarter of Americans are without assets living paycheck to paycheck without savings or investments in equity like a home or small business . The community development programs target this kind of populace so that they can train them and empower them through employments in order to break the vicious cycle of poverty and help them acquire financial stability.
Through community development initiative asset building is initiated and it provides ground-breaking ways to improve local economies and the lives of the vulnerable citizens who are not able to cater for their basic needs. Community development programs offers start-up support and free consultation for asset building activities in local communities. Through the principles of transparency, and accountability funds are disseminated to the needy populace and a follow up program to ensure tat the funds provided are put into proper use ensues. The Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD) seeks to develop viable communities by promoting integrated approaches that provide decent housing, a suitable living environment, and expand economic opportunities for low and moderate income persons. The community development programs initiated by the government are able to trickle down to the expected citizens through partnerships among all levels of government and the private sector, including for-profit and non-profit organizations
Community Mobilization program is effectively used to deter the young population from use or abuse of drug substances. The (CM). Community Mobilization provides visions to various community members participating in creating and sustaining healthy, safe, economically viable communities, free from alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs . Violence and involvement in illegal activities is combated through educative programs which give the youths an alternative to violent activities. CM achieves its mission through collaboration, cooperation, communication, commitment, and competency in dealing with diverse range of populace.

7.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in Law Enforcement sector.

Innovative practices are employed by this sector to reach out to the public; strategies are employed by the federal government in respect to coordination and delivery of law enforcement and public safety . The government is able to ensure defense and security for the citizens at the same time ensuring that the citizens adhere to the rules and regulations of the state. Through bodies like Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, National Institute of Justice, Secret Service, Immigrations Customs and Enforcement the government is able to administer to all legal needs of the U.S citizens. The public administration body endeavors to ensure that justice is accorded to all irrespective of their age and social standing. Moreover, the justice system is accountable for all the legal decisions made and tries to be efficient by ensuring that the rights of the citizens are followed whether they commit crime or not.

For accountability purposes the law enforcement body ensures that all reports are well kept and can be verifiable through established facts. Efficiency is created by use of qualified and dedicated personnel in the field of law enforcement . Through advanced technology the police are able to prevent crime, take law offenders under their custody and ensure that justice is accorded to the offended parties. Transparency comes in when lawyers are involved in the cases of offenders and offended, the citizens get to hear and know facts before a verdict is passed on them. Crime prevention, policing and community safety.

8.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in Health Care sector.

Through the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), a U.S cabinet department the which pursues the government goal of protecting the American’s health at the same time offering essential human services. The cabinet department was created by President Jimmy Cater in the year 1979. currently, the department is administered and regulated by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.

Under HHS are so many branches which have specific tasks allocated to them to enhance specialization in offering good health care to the general public. the human health service works through its main branches to meet the needs of the U.S citizens for instance Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a part of HHS which is mainly concerned with child welfare, through the families the office is able to reach out to the children and ensure that their health is well tended to and that issues like immunization are offered to children to reduce mortality rate.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is an office in the health care fraternity which establishes facts through research and fact finding. The center enhance knowledge on particular disease and seeks to find out the best cure for diseases which are still puzzle to the medical fraternity. It works in conjunction with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Integrity is employed when conducting research the office does not implement cruel methods in establishing effectiveness of s drug when they invent it, animal testing is thoroughly avoided and for ant respondents who are used to experiment on a new introduced drunk there is usually a written consent and they get compensation for it. HHS has spread its branches both in federal and state level in order to reach out to the masses in the U.S populace and provide efficient services. The principle of accountability which cuts across all the publicly administered departments is employed in public medical services, the services provided meet the required standards and the medical fraternity takes responsibility for any harm they may cause to public
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) caters for the vulnerable population which offers from mental damage and are unable to do their duties normally, under public administration the needs of the mentally ill is catered for. Moreover, drug abusers who need to be rehabilitated back to normality, are also tended here the right professional are used to reach out to all the dire cases of mental illness and through them effective health service is offered.

9.0 Positive principles in governance that enhance competence in Environmental Policy

The federal government has set up environmental policies which basically deal with legislating the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The stated acts enable the government to actively participate in environmental conservation to ensure that the environment doe not get deteriorated rather its conserved and well tended for the benefits of future generations. Currently the government works in consensus with the industrial sector to ensure that there is less emission into the air, this is an efficient way of ensuring that there is no more remission of green house gases into the atmosphere as it has dire repercussions on the environment.

Through the government budget funds have been allocated to help in the research effort carried out by the research institute on how to reduce emissions into the atmosphere, measures that would ensure that the environment does not get polluted. The government too has used the principle of accountability whereby it admits the errors of the past of not controlling the pollution rates and now it endeavors to offer excellent solutions to the escalating pollution of water air and the atmosphere through industrial activities.

Due to the increased public awareness of the ill impacts of air pollution the government works in consensus with the general public through enlightening projects which helps the public to realize the dangers of environmental pollution in order for them to take caution.

10.0 hypothetic suppositions on what would happen in absence of Public administration.

If the governance and control of the government was replaced by another body or was obliterated all together a lot of things would come to a sudden holt. To begin with the U.S citizens would be forced to pay extra money for all the services provided for free by the government, such services include, free medications and free access to education, consequently a lot of people who are classified as low and middle class will lack basic necessities like medicine and education which the state offers to them for free . On the other hand, the issue of insecurity will go way out of control because the private sector does not have enough machinery like the public administration, more over crime rates will go up since mechanisms to counter crimes will have been altered .

There will be increased mortality rate since child health will not be well catered for, some of the people who cannot afford medications for themselves may die out of cronical diseases and this may lead to low life expectancy. A lot of young people will languish aimlessly with no jobs or means to support them and they may end up taking drugs because they will be idle and frustrated a fact that may force them to acquire bad habits. Unfortunately there will be no Medicare for free and such youths will be most likely unable to acquire medications for them and they will.

The transport sector will be all messed up, there will be no control mechanisms or means to nub the offenders, hence road accidents will increase and deaths attributed to accidents will increase. The mechanisms to check and report on incidences that may hamper road and other transport systems will not be in use therefore the transport sector will lack focus and eventually collapse and affect the U.S economy so badly .In nutshell, without the public administration every body would suffers one way or the other all the U.S citizens depend on the public administration, it will be impossible to lead a normal life without the public services well manned under public administration.

II. Conclusion.
Public administration is the back bone of all the states provided services to the U.S citizens (Canadians, French, British-UK, Russia, any country in the world), the administration could never work well unless it was under regulations and it operated using policies which act as guidelines on how services are delivered.

If the aspect of principles and guidelines is overlooked in ensuring delivery of services, the public sector could never be able to meet the needs of the general citizens.

Through the established principles which act as blue print on the directions of the government goals, the government is not only able to manage the public services but it is also able to set goals and achieve them. This is the beauty, magic and efficiency of Public Administration.



Notes.

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4 Matthew Kramer, In The Realm of Legal and Moral Philosophy," Ethics (January 2001).

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18 .Leslie Francis and Anita Silvers. Americans with Disabilities: Implications for Individuals and Institutions, ed Routledge, 2000.
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19 Saint-Martin, Denis. Building the New Managerialist State: Consultants and the Politics of Public Sector Reform in Comparative Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

20 Roy Spece "Institutional Review Boards and Conflicts of Interest," in Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Medicine, ed.. Oxford University Press, 1995.

21 "Affirmative Action In Health Care," Mt. Sinai Journal of Medicine 1998).

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23 "Legal Truth and Moral Realism," Southern Methodist University Law Review (1997).

24 L. Francis. Groups and Group Rights, University of Kansas Press, 2000.

25 W. McMahon. Genetics and Criminality, American Psychological Association, 1999.

26 Jeffrey Botkin, William McMahon, and Leslie Francis Genetics and Criminality: The Potential Misuse of Scientific Information in Court, ed. American Psychological Association, 1999.

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28 Landesman, and T. Smeeding. Rowman and Allenheld, Should Medical Care Be Rationed?,
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29 Maggs, John. 1999. "High Voltage Innovation." National Journal. (March 6) v31i10 p.633(1).

30 "Global systemic problem and interconnected duties," Environmental Ethics (Summer 2003).

31 Pollitt, Christopher and Bouckaert, Geert. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

32 Osborne, David. 2000. "Higher Standards." Government Executive. (July)

33 Kwon, Soonman, and Tang, Shui-yan. 1988. "Reinventing Government: a Critique From an Institutional Perspective." International Journal of Public Administration. (October) v21n10 p.1449(23).

34 Brudney, Jeffrey L., Rainey, Hal G. (editor), O'Toole, Laurence J. (editor), and O'Toole Jr., Laurence J. (editor). Advancing Public Management: New Developments in Theory, Methods, and Practice. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000.

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About the author or the publisher
-International Counsel & LAW SOCIETY OF UPPER CANADA and Ghana (Barrister - Solicitor)
-BA, BS, MA, LLB, LLD, MBA & PhD
President-Founder of NPPPC in D R Congo

www.npppc.org

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