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Do you need orthodontic treatment?

malocclusion, effects of malocclusion, oral habits.

SOME TIPS ABOUT ORTHODONTIA

Orthodontia involves the treatment to correct the malocclusion i.e. the crowding of teeth.The age to start is from 9 years.

TYPES OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENTS

1.PREVENTIVE---
Early correction of proximal caries. Early recognition of oral habits and their treatment.
Space maintenance in case of early loss of milk teeth.

2.INTERCEPTIVE---
Planned serial extraction if there is less space and crowding of teeth is imminent.

3.CORRECTIVE---
Removable appliances and Fixed braces for misaligned teeth.

4.SURGICAL ORTHODONTICS---
Orthodontic and surgical correction of severe skeletal problems like long jaw, short chin, protruding maxilla, cleft lip and palate

AIMS

•Functional harmony
•Aesthetic harmony
•Normal occlusion
TYPES OF MALOCCLUSION
•Protruding upper or/and lower teeth and jaw.
•Crowding of upper/lower teeth.
•Anterior/posterior open bite.
•Deep and traumatic bite.
•Edge to edge or cross bite.

EFFECTS

•Poor appearance of the face---psychological problem .Withdrawal from the peer group causing shyness or depression in extreme cases.
•Crowding of the teeth causes caries and periodontal disease affecting mastication.
•Protruding anterior teeth are prone to injury and fracture during play or in an accident.
•Abnormal muscle functions like: short upper lip, bulky lower lip and tongue thrust, cause mouth breathing and chronic gingivitis.
•Tongue thrust can lead to spaces in the anterior teeth, improper swallowing and speech defects
•Certain malocclusions interfere in facial growth.
•The deep bite stresses the temperomandibular joint causing pain .It also causes attrition of the teeth leading to hypersensitivity due to exposed dentine.
•Overcrowding can cause impaction of certain teeth like wisdom teeth.

CAUSES

-Hereditary: If the parents have different sizes of jaws and teeth, the child can inherit either from the two, e.g. small jaw and big teeth
-Congenital diseases like cleft lip and palate.
-Facial asymmetry.
-Nutritional deficiency during active growth phase can slow the pace of growth of the face.
-Abnormal habits: thumb sucking after the age of 4-5, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting.
-Poor posture. If the person exerts constant pressure on the jaw and teeth by pressing the palm of the hand while sitting, the pressure can cause deformity of the face.
-Accidents and trauma to the tooth germs during infancy.
-Missing teeth, extra teeth or retained teeth.

ORAL HABITS

•Useful habits include habits of normal function like : correct tongue position, proper respiration ,swallowing and normal use of lips.
•Harmful habits exert perverted stresses against teeth and jaws. These are: Sucking of thumb, finger, frenum, dummy, pacifier, lip, pencil or object and knuckles.
•The biting of lip, nails, cheek and tongue.
•Tongue thrusting, mouth breathing, clenching of teeth and bruxism.
•Occupational habits like keeping needles in teeth, breaking wire or threads, opening bottle caps, cracking nuts, testing acids and alkalis etc.

ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES

•Functional appliances, for correcting teeth, they can be fixed or removable braces.
•Retentional appliances for maintaining the new position of the teeth.
•Habit breaking appliances for mouth breathing, thumb sucking, and tongue thrusting.
Period of treatment 2-3 years depending on the severity.

PROBLEMS DURING THE TREATMENT

•Poor oral hygiene— use orthodontic brush and eat sensibly or caries and or gingivitis can occur.
•Trauma from the appliance –contact the orthodontist
•Abnormal mobility of teeth- due to excessive force, traumatic occlusion and irregular wearing of the braces.
•Painful teeth can be due to excessive force or undetected caries.
•Pulp injury ,Root resorption excessive force can make the tooth non- vital and resorb the root.

ALWAYS CONTACT AN ORTHODONTIST FOR ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT.
Published: 2008-06-15
Author: Jasmin Nanda

About the author or the publisher
I am a dentist with an itch to write about dentistry,self help articles,inspirational articles and stories.

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