The Human Resource Management (HRM) is an academic theory and a business practice that is connected with the theoretical and practical techniques of managing a staff . its theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees or the satff are individuals with cahnging goals and needs, and it should not be considered as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The workers, takes a positive view Field thinking that all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. The Human Resource Management is considered to be the part of a business or company which recruits, develops and utilizes an organization's personnel in the way which would benefit the firm's aims and objectives. It creates alignment between an organization's HRM strategy and the core objectives of a business considered as essential.Human Resource Management (HRM) is all about managing people, human capital and culture for business success. The human resources management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies.
The Human Resource Management is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. The techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can understand the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. Thus Human Resource Mangement techniques, when properly practiced,seem to be expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall.
Nowadays, it has concerned synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe those activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, by which Satff is adminsitered . These activities require regulatory knowledge and effort, and enterprises can benefit from the recruitment and development of personnel with these specific skills.
The aims of Human Resource Management is to help an organization or Institution to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The academic theory of Human Resource Management is that humans should not be considered machines.Therefore ,we should have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. The Fields such as psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, sociology, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management.
The activities of Human resource managers are involved such as interviewing applicants, staff training, and dealing with laws and regulations within employment.The Human Resource Mangement is composed of seven interlinked activities taking place with organizations. The seven major HR management activities are given Below:
(1) Strategic HR Management,
(2) Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO),
(4) HR Development,
(5) Compensation and Benefits,
(6) Health, Safety, & Security, and
(7) Employee & Labor Relations.
Within these activities there are external forces involved such as legal, economic, technological, global, environmental, cultural/geographic, political, and social-which significantly affect HR activities and how they are designed, managed, and changed.
"Resource Manager" and that is the only change.Empowerment has been noted as an HRM practice which by critics has been noted more as a pseudo-empowerment, based on attitudinal shaping "___(Wilkinson 1998).
"Other such HRM practices have been noted as hidden within rhetoric, and many examples particularly within call centers are much more Orwellian, and hide the reality, through attitudinal shaping "_____(Wilkinson 1998).
"Today, unions remain a controversial topic. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire non-union workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired. The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file unfair labor practice complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions _____(Cherrington, 1995).
The Human Capital : Carmeli, A and Schaubroeck, J argue that "having higher levels of human resources capital was strongly associated with performance only when top managers perceived that these resources provided distinctive value in terms of being highly valuable, inimitable, rare, and nonsubstitutable"
For this reason, motivation of employee is at the heart of how innovative and productive things get done within work organisation (Bloisi-W, 2003, p.172). Before studying the different ways to motivate, we have to give a clear definition of the word "motivation".
Bloisi, W argues that "motivation involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities with greater effort that one performs others activities competing for attention".
Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. Many early economic theories refer to it simply as labour, one of three factors of production, and consider it to be a commodity - homogeneous and easily interchangeable. Other conceptions of labour are more sophisticated
Origin of concept History
" The term human capital was first discussed by Arthur Cecil Pigou : "There is such a thing as investment in human capital as well as investment in material capital. So soon as this is recognised, the distinction between economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred. For, up to a point, consumption is investment in personal productive capacity. This is specially important in connection with children: to reduce unduly expenditure on their consumption may greatly lower their efficiency in after-life. Even for adults, after we have descended a certain distance along the scale of wealth, so that we are beyond the region of luxuries and "unnecessary" comforts, a check to personal consumption is also a check to investment (Pigou, 1928, A Study in Public Finance, Macmillan, London, p. 29).
Global Presence of Companies
The global debate is on regarding the fair distribution of human capital btween the countries . This points to the educated individuals, who typically migrate from poorer places or developing countires to richer places seeking opportunity, making 'the rich richer and the poor poorer'. When these workers migrate, generally, their early care and education is benefited by the country where they move to work and live their lives . And, when they have health problems or retire, their care and retirement pension will typically be paid in the new country.
Hitsorical HRM from 19th to 20th Centuries :
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries,The Human Capital in the United States had became considerably more valuable as the need for skilled labor came with newfound technological advancement. These New techniques and processes also required further education than the normally of primary schooling, which hence led to the creation of more formalized schooling across the nation. The early insight into the need for education allowed for provided a Shift to US productivity and economic prosperity, when compared to other world leaders at the time.
The rights and freedom of individuals who travelled for the want of opportunity, despite some historical exceptions such as the Soviet bloc and its "Iron Curtain", seem to consistently outweigh the rights of nation-states that nurture and educate themits worth mentioning that, the ability to have mobility with regards to where people want to move and work is a part of their human capital. They were able to move from one place to an other .
HRM in Several Environments
Being increase in competition, locally or globally, organizations must become more adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. And within this change in environment, the HR professional has to evolve to become a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor within the organization. In order to succeed in this term , HR must be a business driven function with a thorough understanding of the organization's big picture and be able to influence key decisions and policies. The focus of today's HR Manager is on strategic personnel retention and talents development. HR professionals can be e coaches, counselors, mentors, and succession planners to help motivate organization's members and their loyalty. The HR manager will also have to promote and fight for values, ethics, beliefs, and spirituality within their organizations, especially in the management of workplace diversity as compared to the Work Force of various states .
Many companies now have realized the advantages of a diverse workplace. As many of them are going local in their market expansions either physically or virtually (for example, E-commerce-related companies), there is a necessity to employ diverse talents to understand the various niches of the market. If want to take the example of China when it was opening up its markets and exporting their products globally in the late 1980s, the Chinese companies (such as China's electronic giants such as Hair) were seeking the marketing expertise of Singaporeans. This was due to Singapore's marketing talents were able to understand the local China markets relatively well (almost 75% of Singaporeans are of Chinese descent) and as well as being attuned to the markets in the West due to Singapore's open economic policies and English language abilities. (Toh, R, 1993)
Similarly if we take the Example of Microsoft a Global company and No1Software Company has some values to work in different environments. They are adaptable to any Culture or norms and rules of the Country because they employ the local Talent there besides their working capital already they have with. They rely on local Partners as entrepreneurs for their sales and marketing . In this Line
The Google h as done remarkable by establishing sites of Various Countries ij their own languages which has really helped them to go forward and become the biggest advertising company for Web . Billion of ads shown on site as ad words . But the main thing they employ the Local talent for boosting their sales .
Yahoo is also an International Company in competition with Google and Microsoft. But it shares went down due to improper Human Resource and improper understanding of the Local markets of the Various Countries .
Finally , If the Human Resource Management Theory assessed globally , it has really brought revolution in outsourcing and hiring of the staff . It has really opened the Vistas of talent and opened the doors of the talent to the Globe . Now opportunities are not limited to the particular Countries. They HRM has proved vital for the Biggest Companies such as Sony , Samsung , Motorola and LG also .They have the same phenomena of taking the products menus in the local languages to sell and market their Products through the Local Human Resource