Your source of Free Articles Your source of Free Reprint Articles and Content! Login
  HOME       SUBMIT AN ARTICLE       BENEFITS       TERMS AND CONDITIONS       TOP WRITERS  

Find an Article:   
ArticlesGratuits.com, your source of Free Articles about: Economy
 

Impact of Capitalism, egalitarian and Marxism on Paradigms' Scope of World’s Public Administration

Role of public administration on a global scale; Impact of free-market capitalism, egalitarian theory and Marxist influence on the structure of public administration systems throughout the world; The concept of philanthropy and social justice is viewed by the most populous countries worldwide; Public Administration prevalence and scope vary according to the different paradigms of national governments.

The following research will examine the role of public administration on a global scale and how does its prevalence and scope vary according to the different paradigms of national government. In this essay, we shall attempt to analyze how the concept of philanthropy and social justice is viewed by the most populous countries and the impact of free market capitalism, egalitarian theory and Marxist influence on the world structure of public administration systems in the world...

The role of public administration varies widely throughout the globe. Every national government imprints its own particular stamp on how prevalent public administration is and what the particular foci might be.

As an example, in Ghana (West Africa), the post-colonial system has discovered a far more harmonious path to public administration.
The Ghanaian King of Asante, Otumfuo Osei Tutu II, has maintained the position that the system of administration in the country should never revert to its ancestral format. He has propounded that a system which is built upon the best of both worlds would be most appropriate in these modern times (Ankomah 2009, 12).

The system of public administration in Ghana is reflected in the fact that the country is one of the most stable in the entire African continent and the economy is thriving. Furthermore, the social conditions of the people are improving gradually and the cultural character of the nation has not been lost in the process.

Ghana is a shining example of a post-colonial nation state which has deftly bridged the divide between ancient systems and modernity, and has created its own successful brand of hybridized public administration.

Contrary to the aforementioned example, the government of Zimbabwe, led by the dictator Robert Mugabe, has been mainly focused on the eviction of white settlers from their ancestral farms. This post-colonial reaction has created widespread disruption to economy. The government has lost focus on other spheres of public administration and the farms’ new African management simply has never been able to recreate the same level of productivity. Additionally, the international condemnation and economic penalties imposed on Zimbabwe “has led to a catastrophic collapse of the Zimbabwean economy, which is now being rebuilt by the Inclusive Government” (Cush 2009, 30).

In Dr Congo, there is no tolerance of any opposition voice. The elected government seems to have relaxed the principles of liberal democracy. There is no difference between loyal opposition and enemy (BBC World). For example, in Democratic Republic of Congo, government seems to have government and parliament parallel to the established institutions. Institutions are being overshadowed by presidential decrees and executive powers which are omnipotent and ready to fire, detain or even kill whoever stands to make opposite claims.

The previously mentioned example of Ghana is practically a polar opposite of Zimbabwe and Democratic Republic of Congo..

Indonesia is the most populous Muslim nation in the world. Public administration is directly affected by the strict ideological framework by which all governance is operated in the country. The system is quite vertical and there is little possibility of the general public challenging those in charge for fear of imprisonment or execution due to zealotry of those in power. In the realm of public administration, “Bureaucrats thus play their role in allocating the budget without being governed or monitored by the public” (Kristiansen et al. 2009, 82). It is far too easy for anyone critiquing the performance of a bureaucrat to be branded as “anti-Islam,” which of course is a crime punishable by death in Indonesia.

The country of Pakistan has the third largest amount of Muslim population of any country in the world. Pakistan is a nation which has garnered much news as of late as the incoming Obama administration no longer has to hide behind Bush-era rhetoric and has openly branded the country as the center of al-Qaeda and the War on Terror.
“Over the course of Pakistan’s short history, the influence of the military on the government, even in times of ostensibly civilian rule, has ensured that the land of the pure has only ever been wandering in foothills of democracy” (Gregory & Revill 2008, 39). Military dictatorships and Islamic extremism control public administration in Pakistan.

The booming economy in Russia has been a battlefield between the remnants of the former Soviet government and the oligarchy. In the Public administration there is a construct of the struggle between these forces, reminiscent of the prior authoritarian polemics (Mezhuev 2009, 28). An excellent example of this issue is found in the control of Yukos, the oil and gas giant. Oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky was imprisoned when Yukos was nationalized by the Russian government. Vladimir Putin cited the need for the public to have a greater share in the earnings of Yukos, and used the excuse of tax evasion to grab Khodorkovsky and his billions.

The Chinese communist government emphasizes the value of family as a cornerstone of the culture and a hallmark of the philanthropic approach to the needs of society. Yet, the facts on the ground indicate otherwise. In large public projects such as the Shenzhen–Hong Kong Western Corridor project or the Three Gorges Dam project, massive relocation has been undertaken. The handling of these types of projects has been characterized by vacuous rhetoric which has attempted to patronize the public. The former important component of family has been cast aside in reference to the justification for public projects (Chun 2007, 56). Some of these projects are the most criticized public projects from a social and environmental standpoint ever undertaken in the history of civilization. Unfortunately, the sphere for complaints, involvement, and redress are almost non-existent in the authoritarian Chinese system.

In rural China, the ancient system of collective reliance has been replaced by the authoritarian system. However, the former system was far more successful in implementing projects which were in the interest of society while retaining cultural character. “Although modern factors have destroyed the cultural and institutional foundations of traditional functional organizations, the former cannot immediately replace traditional organizations in helping to provide public goods, so there is an impetus for the continuation of traditional functional Organizations” (Xuefeng 2008, 17). Again, there is no mechanism by which social justice can even be addressed. Anyone who is too critical of the government faces the strong possibility of being incarcerated, tortured, or perhaps having their families undergo similar treatment.

The second most populous country in the world is quite a different situation. The secular democracy of India exists with a strong sense of its ancient philanthropic ideals. Furthermore, the system is continually being improved so that that the mechanisms for public scrutiny of Governance is elucidated in the Indian government web portal. This portal is designed such there is a single point of entry to all government websites (Ribiero 2006, 16). This enhanced online system is an example of how India has bridged the fact that it is the largest software producer in the world to making this technological reality reach the needs of the common people.

As another example, in the Silicon Valley of India, the city of Bangalore, the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) Initiative, which launched in 1999, had an emphasis which was focused “upon augmenting the capacity of those agencies - through the provision of fresh funds, new technologies and methods, technical specialists contracted in, and the opening of the agencies to greater public participation and scrutiny” (Manor 2007, 447).

In concluding with impressive record of India. What might be an example of a rarity in the modern world, the public perception of how well the government is functioning is marked by unprecedented positive feedback that public needs are being met. At the same time, one of the biggest goals of public policy in India is in addressing the 35% of the population which still is poor (Singh 2005, 56). But the character of ideologically driven philanthropy and the mechanisms for social justice have allowed the country to build a more stable economy than almost any country in the world. This fact is supported by the sheer numerical mass of the largest middle class in the world. It is evidence that public administrators, when taking the needs of people into account, can help build a vibrant and successful society.

=================================

Bibliography
Ankomah, Baffour. 2009. "Ghana's King of Kings celebrates." New African , no. 483: 3-23.
Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Chun, Liu. 2007. "How Does Morality Evaluate Public Works?." Chinese Sociology &
Anthropology 40, no. 2: 35-64. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Cush, Ifa Kamau. 2009. "America's misguided stance on Zimbabwe." New African , no. 485: 28-
30. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Gregory, Shaun, and James Revill. 2008. "The role of the military in the cohesion and stability of
Pakistan." Contemporary South Asia 16, no. 1: 39-61. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Kristiansen, Stein, Dwiyanto, Agus, Pramusinto, Agus, and Erwan Agus Putranto. 2009.
"Public Sector Reforms and Financial Transparency: Experiences from Indonesian Districts." Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International & Strategic Affairs 31, no. 1: 64-87. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Manor, James. 2007. "Successful Governance Reforms in Two Indian States: Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh." Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 45, no. 4: 425-451. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Mezhuev, V. M. 2009. "I Would Prefer to Speak of Democratic Sovereignty." Russian Studies in
Philosophy 47, no. 4: 26-32. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Ribeiro, John. 2006. "Indian Government Revamps Web Portal." Computerworld 40, no. 39: 16-
16. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Singh, Amita. 2005. "INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY: CONTEXT AND
EPISTEMOLOGY." Administrative Theory & Praxis (Administrative Theory & Praxis) 27, no. 1: 51-80. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

Xuefeng, He. 2008. "The Regional Variation of Rural Governance and the Logics of Peasant
Action." Chinese Sociology & Anthropology 41, no. 1: 10-29. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 9, 2009).

About the author or the publisher
-International Counsel & LAW SOCIETY OF UPPER CANADA and Ghana (Barrister - Solicitor)
-BA, BS, MA, LLB, LLD, MBA & PhD
President-Founder of NPPPC in D R Congo

www.npppc.org

Source: ArticlesGratuits.com - Free Articles



Most popular articles from Economy category
Buy this article  
Full Rights: 6.00
Free    


Article Categories
Arts and Entertainment Automotive Business   Advertising   Affiliate   Business (General)   Business Ethics   Business Etiquette   Careers   Communication   Customer Service   Economy   Entrepreneurial   Home Based   Jobs/Employment   Management   Marketing   MLM   Money Making Ideas   Networking   Online Business   Public Relations   Real Estate   Sales Communication Computer and Internet Finance Health and Fitness Home and Family Legal News and Society Pets and Animals Recreation and Sports Science Self Improvement Travel

130aa
 

Home | Submit an article | Benefits | Terms and Conditions | Top Writers | Contact-Us| Login

Copyright ArticlesGratuits.com - Free Reprint Articles
www.your-website.ca - www.creation-site-internet.ca