What is Delinquency?
Delinquency means any antisocial or criminal act performed by juveniles. It is a vital social issue because juveniles are capable of committing serious crimes, but many legal systems prescribe specific and varied procedures and punishments for dealing with such crimes.
What is Juvenile Delinquency?
Juvenile Delinquency refers to either violent or non-violent crime committed by persons who are (usually) under the adult age (18Years).
However, there is anomaly whether or not a child should be held criminally responsible for his or her own actions.
Various outside influences :
There are many different outside influences that affect the way a child acts both negatively and positively, some of those influences are as follows:
2. Social institutions
3. Peer pressure
4. Physical abuse
5. Sexual abuse
6. Psychological abuse
A Birdâ€™s eye view of Juvenile Delinquency :
There are two theories which are called as social control theory which is any socially unacceptable and illegal behavior that occurs at the spur of the moment, totally unplanned and the other one is
self control theory which is any behavior that uses force or fraud in pursuit of self interest.
Are People naturally bad ?
Both theories explain juvenile delinquency and say that people are naturally bad.
It is also believed that youth in particular who use drugs and commit crime do it because they lack self control.
It is also said that poor parenting and families that are unable or willing to monitor their child's behaviors lack self control.
For these theories to play out in an effective manner, self-control would need to work before social control can works.
Who has the most self control?
Many believe that whoever is the most socially adaptable and conformist in society, not necessarily the smartest, will have the most self-control.
Too much of Autonomy!!
It is also said , that too much autonomy is not a good thing when dealing with interpersonal relationships among children.
Link between Poverty and Crime:
Many believe that there is a serious relationship between the world's most deadliest disease - poverty and crime.
Their theory suggests that if you are poor you are more likely to commit crimes and become a criminal.
They feel that there are institutionalized paths to happiness in our society.
They also believe in a society of equilibrium where goals = means.
1. A society of disequlibrium would be adaptation. The famous Strain Theory suggests five attributes.
Innovation: individuals who accept socially approved goals, but not necessarily the socially approved means.
2. Retreatism: those who reject socially approved goals and the means for acquiring them.
3. Ritualism: people who buy into system of socially approved means but lose sight of the goals (Drug users are placed in this category).
4. Conformity: those who conform to the system's means and goals.
5. Rebellion: people who negate socially approved goals and means by creating a new system of acceptable goals and means.
PARENTING and It's ROLE :
Parenting is the social process of raising, bringing up and educating a child from birth until adulthood.
This is usually done in a child's family by the mother and father (i.e., the biological parents).
Where parents are unable or unwilling to provide this care, it is usually taken on by close relatives (including older siblings) and grandparents, adoptive parents, foster parents, godparents, or institutions (such as group homes or orphanages).
Aspects of parenting
Reliably providing shelter, education, medical care, physical
safety and nourishment.
Social development and emotional support:
Love, play and physical touch.
Social skills and etiquette.
Ethics and value systems.
Moral and spiritual development.
Norms and contributions to the child's religion and ethnic
Money provided by non-custodial parents, following a divorce.
Insurance coverage and payments for education.
Parenting Methods and Practices
Parenting may involve praise, but it also involves punishment.
Some parents no longer consider spanking a necessary punishment. The term "child training" implies a specific type of parenting that focuses on holistic understanding of the child.
The "Taking Children Seriously" philosophy sees both praise and punishment as manipulative and harmful to the child and seeks other way to reach agreement with them.
The term "attachment parenting" seeks to create strong emotional bonds and avoid physical punishment, with discipline being accommodated by interactions with a child's emotional needs.
Taking Children Seriously (TCS) philosophy
Pregnancy and the early years- THE EFFECT ON THE UNBORN CHILD :
During pregnancy the unborn child is affected by many decisions his or her parents make, particularly choices linked to their lifestyle.
The health and diet decisions of the mother can have either a positive or negative impact on the child.
Specific care includes:
Touching, holding, playing, stimulating and interacting with the child.
Providing food and drink, and in the case of younger children, the process of feeding or helping with that.
Providing a toilet and facilities for washing, and in the case of younger children, the washing itself or helping with that, and providing diapers or helping using the toilet (Toilet training).
providing clothing, and in the case of small children, putting the clothes on and taking them off or helping with that;
Common areas many parents look to address during infancy
arranging for a school to provide formal education,
Parents may receive assistance from a variety of individuals and organizations. Employers may offer specific benefits or programs for parents.
Juvenile Delinquency and its effects are very costly to individuals, families, and societies. Millions of tax dollars are expended each year to cover the costs of law enforcement, legal proceedings, victim assistance, and offender incarceration.
Prevention is better than cure:
A number of studies have found that prevention costs much less than the effects of delinquency itself.
Many countries have gained this vision and have allocated funds for programs that serve at youth at risk .