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RESEARCH TOPIC: AN EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE IN A UNIVERSITY

research, University, Kenyan Varsity, Job market, Evalution, competition, report, organization

SELECTED UNIVERSITY: MOI UNIVERSITY- KENYA, AFRICA
A CASE STUDY OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE PART.
NAME: AGGREY NZOMO KAVALU

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
The topic of Quality of Work Life is gaining attention especially in the wake of very competitive business environment. Firms currently are researching on ways to make the quality of work life of their employees better.

1.1 Background of the study

Quality is a relative term based on the expectations of lets say the consumers. Quality refers to an ideal situation where expectations and actual experiences match.

QWL is measured by the satisfaction or lack of it by employees in their jobs. The subject of QWL is gaining momentum as employees want a better working environment and firms on the other and want to improve the satisfaction derived by employees from work so as to attract, develop and retain the best people for the organization.

It is very evident that quality of work life has become the focus of today’s organizations, be it commercial, academic, not for profit and any other organization as long it is involved in some sort of operation or manufacture. It is continuously becoming the concern of all organizations because they want, at the same time, to promote organizational effectiveness as well as create employee satisfaction.

Work constitutes the central life interest of individuals. Occupations have become very important in individual lives just because so many needs are satisfied by them (ROE 1956, Cole 1997, Graham, 1998)

Commenting on the meaning of work to individuals, Carvel ( 1970) stated that:
“man needs to occupy himself with some array mental and physical activity and certainly, work is not the only means of satisfying this need; yet many men spent nearly half of their working hours working. the nature and significance of work would be important as an area for study; if only on the basis that it occupies so much of a mans life span”

Work serves various functions for an individual other than simply a means a living. An individual QWL- the sense of well being of doing something worthwhile of having some purpose seems to be associated with his work (strivastava, 1984)

In Kenya QWL movement is still young, although as more organizations modernize the need to embrace involvement and participative management techniques is apparently taking root. Job satisfaction and other human resource strategies are increasingly being used in organizations to retain highly motivated employees.

This study aims at measuring QWL /job satisfaction among the employees of Moi university in personnel and administrative departments.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The primary purpose of the organization is to be able to achieve its goals and objectives satisfactorily. The maximum prosperity of both employees and employer is usually seen in relation to performance and productivity ( Landen 1982). For the employer this means increased performance which in turn leads to higher efficiency. For the employee increased performance may lead to valued customers that also lead to maximum prosperity (TAYLOR, 1947). Much research has been undertaken to ways to increase human productivity(Thomas et el 19940)

Yet in spite of these efforts QWL of employees is still an abstract to most organizations. Management employs traditional management practices and strategies which are characterized by autocratic management, a tall organizational chart and emphasis on simple, narrow employee skills.

Consequently, the employees are shut out of daily running of the organization and employee participation and involvement are typically suppressed. The issue of QWL is therefore significant in that an employee’s well being on the job grants them certain power, status, dignity and a feeling of well achievement. This study aims at measuring the degree to which Moi University values its employees and cares for them as a result. It aims at ascertaining how well employee needs are addressed by the institution. It seeks to establish the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in the university.

This research sets out to evaluate the importance of monetary and non monetary benefits, job security, and participation of employees in decision making, safe and healthy working conditions, remuneration, social integration etc and their effect on job satisfaction.

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.3.1 General objective
To measure QWL of employees of Moi University, in personnel and administrative department, as revealed by their attitudes towards various aspects of their jobs.
1.3.2 Specific objectives.
1. To find out how adequate and fair compensation in Moi University has influenced QWL of employees in personnel and administrative departments.
2. To establish how safe and healthy working conditions in Moi University have influenced QWL of employees in personnel and administrative departments.
3. To measure how immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacity in Moi University have influenced QWL of employees in personnel and administrative departments.
4. To establish how stress in Moi University have influenced QWL of employees in personnel and administrative departments.

1.4 Research questions

1.4.1 General question
What is the general attitude of employees of Moi university personnel and administrative departments on QWL in Moi University?
1.4.2 Specific questions
1.What effects have adequate and fair compensation had on QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University.
2.What are the results of safe and health working conditions in Moi university on QWL of employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi university
3.How has immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacity influenced QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University?
4.How has stress in Moi University influenced QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University?


1.5 Research hypothesis

1.Adequate and fair compensation in Moi University have deteriorated QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University.
2.Safe and health working conditions in Moi University have had small impact on QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University.
3.Immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacity has negatively impacted on QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University.
4.Stress in Moi University has reduced QWL of the employees in personnel and administrative departments in Moi University.

1.6 Justification of the study

One reason why organizations take interest in improving QWL of their employees is because they see it as a means of obtaining greater employee motivation and commitment to organization objectives (Pugh 1977)

The need for this study was felt because of the following reasons.

1.There have been very few studies on QWL, employee involvement and motivation of workers. Most of these only tried to explain job satisfaction, and motivation in terms of working conditions and incentive system in place at a given organization. Thus QWL seems to have been neglected. An attempt was however made in this study to provide an integrated explanation of QWL.

2.A perceptible change in the values of employees can aggravate or improve the impact of economic and organization performance and productivity. The traditional style of management worked successfully in the late 1940s, 50s and 60s. The key to succeed in this era was the ability to organize resources and produce products in great volumes to meet the ever growing and seemingly insatiable demand (Belcher, 1987.)

But times have changed. This is an era of global competition. Modern management practices based on management philosophy that recognizes the well being of human resource as the key to success to any organization Endeavour.(COLE 1997) history has taught us repeatedly that those organizations that doggedly maintain traditional practices rather than adapting to positive changes in their environment do not survive(srivastava1984).

1.7 Significance of the study

University administrators who aim at developing and maintaining a highly motivated and productive workforce will find the results of this study invaluable. They can be used to improve their employee’s participation, motivation and involvement in the effective running of their respective universities.

Firms have to strive to keep up to the competition and to utilize opportunities arising to have a competitive advantage.
Moi University has to strive to beat the competition by striving to promote the quality of work life among its Administration staff because they might be tempted to move to other institutions of higher learning that may present better quality of work life.
These findings will enable managers to identify those areas which need much attention as pertains employee welfare to meet them and therefore solicit total commitment from them.

1.8 Scope of the study

This research was carried out in Moi University, main campus in the administration block. The target populations were the employees of Moi university main campus but due to economic and time constraints it was limited to personnel and administrative staff at all levels. The areas examined included, adequate and fair compensation, safe and health working conditions, immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities, opportunity for continued growth and development, social integration in the work organization, constitutionalization and work and total life space.

1.9 Operational definition of terms

Quality Work Life is the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment. It seeks to create those conditions in the organization which:

(i) promote individual learning and development
(ii) Provide individuals with influence and control over what they do and how they do it.
(iii) Make available to the individuals interesting and meaningful work as a source of personal satisfaction and a means to valued personal rewards.

C H A P T E R T W O

1.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews various pieces of information on quality of work life as discussed by various scholars in books, journals, research reports and websites. The concept of quality of work life will be broadly explored in this chapter.

Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a philosophy, a set of principles, which holds that people are the most important resource in the organization as they are trustworthy, responsible and capable of making valuable contribution and they should be treated with dignity and respect.
The elements that are relevant to an individual’s quality of work life include the task, the physical work environment, social environment within the organization, administrative system and relationship between life on and off the job.

QWL consists of opportunities for active involvement in group working arrangements or problem solving that are of mutual benefit to employees or employers, based on labor management cooperation.
People also conceive of QWL as a set of methods, such as autonomous work groups, job enrichment, high-involvement aimed at boosting the satisfaction and productivity of workers. It requires employee commitment to the organization. And an environment in which this commitment can flourish. Thus, QWL is a comprehensive construct that includes an individual’s job related well-being and the extent to which work experiences are rewarding, fulfilling and devoid of stress and other negative personal consequences.
Accordingly, the rising number of two-income households is heightening the concern for employees’ quality of work life. Given that female participation at work is increasing, it is apparent that males and females independently will need to take care of both work and
home. Therefore, quality of work experience rather than work per se became the focus of attention and workplace wellness is crucial in promoting healthier working environments.

Walton proposed eight major conceptual categories relating to QWL as
(1) Adequate and fair compensation,
(2) Safe and healthy working conditions,
(3) Immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities,
(4) Opportunity for continued growth and security,
(5) Social integration in the work organization,
(6) Constitutionalism in the work organization,
(7) Work and total life space and
(8) Social relevance of work life.

Therefore we can see that people can be motivated as both individuals and members of groups. As organizations become more complex, managers will increasingly have to stimulate collaboration and cooperation rather than individualism and competition.

Opportunity, stress, leadership, work standards, fair rewards, adequate authority, security, wages and work itself influence QWL. Employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work for example participating in interesting projects, job enlargement and job enrichment. Suri, (1996) point out that job enlargement implies additions of more functions and increasing the variety of task. Job enrichment implies an improvement in quality and variety of work. Thus job enrichment provides the opportunity for employee’s psychological growth while job enlargement merely makes a job structurally bigger.

Motivation and hygiene factors as highlighted by Herzberg (1989) indicate two distinct lists of factors; one set of factors causes happy feeling with the workers. These are task related. The other group causes unhappiness or bad attitude and are not directly related to the hob itself but to the conditions surroundings the job. The first set of factors he called job factors e.g. recognition, achievement and possibility of growth, advancement, responsibility and work itself. The second set of factors Herzberg (1989) named hygiene factors (extra job factors) e.g. salary, interpersonal relations with supervisors, interpersonal relation with peers, supervisors job, company policy and administration, working conditions, factors in personal life, status and job security. Motivators refer to intrinsic factors as factors within the work itself, like the recognition of a task completed. Conversely hygiene tend to include entities such as relation with co-workers which do not pertain to the worker’s actual job.

2.1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs dwells on important human needs that need to be satisfied:-

These are:

Physiological Needs
These needs related to day to day living process of human beings. A person needs food, clothing, accommodation, sleep, medical treatment. These must be fulfilled for happy and comfortable life.

Safety Needs
Human beings need to have the safety or security in life. They must have security of job and overall environment must be stable and secure. If there is political disturbance or job insecurity, the human being will have the feeling of insecurity.

Social Needs
Human beings are social in nature. They cannot remain isolated from other persons. The social structure has great impact. If social set up is favorable, then they feel happy and more secured.

Self Esteem
Every person has the desire to have high status in the society. If a person succeeds to get a better job or to become a leader, he gets more satisfaction.

Self Actualization
Self actualization means the opportunity to prove one’s worth or ability. Every person has the desire that he should get that job where he can show his capabilities or qualities. If the person is not allowed to make certain decisions he will not be happy.

Propositions: With justification from the literature, it is reasonable to suggest that aspects of career development with reference to career satisfaction and career achievement are factors likely to have impact on QWL. Likewise, career balance with the rising indication of conflict between work and family life is also proposed as another factor determining QWL. The key elements in QWL include decision participation, restructuring the nature of the work, enhancing the work environment and defining the reward structure. As pointed out in the literature, QWL reflects a concern for people’s experience at work, their relationship with other people, their work setting and their effectiveness on the job. QWL activity involves improvements in the workplace, with particular emphasis on physical work and the circumstances surrounding it. So, changes in rules, conditions, hours and other aspects of the environment are at issue.

Reward system is essential in promoting a climate of involvement and career satisfaction. By mutually solving work-related problems, building cooperation, improving work environments, restructuring tasks and carefully and fairly managing human resource outcomes and payoffs, QWL programs will benefit both labor and management.

2.2.0 Adequate and fair Compensation
A wages system is of great importance in any organization. Correct amount of wage must be paid to the employees at the right time. If wages are not paid in the right manner, then employees will not work hard and as a result income will fall. Wages should be paid according to terms and conditions of employment of each worker. Wages are computed in different methods. These are time rate, piece rate, flat rate, commission, bonus rates methods. (Saleemi, 1991).
E. M. Waweru (1984) argued that satisfactory compensation schemes will enable the organization to attract and retain capable and competent workers. He generated the following key elements of a sound compensation policy.

2.2.1 Levels and adequacy of wage payment.
This will generally depend on; the competitive wage rates prevailing in the labour market, wage-rates prevailing in the industry, financial position of the organization and the management policies of the organization.

2.2.2 Equity in wage payment
QWL is basically built around the concept of equitable pay. The employees must be paid their dues share in the progress and prosperity of the firm. Compensation has got twin objectives; firstly it should create a favorable environment whereby the organization utilizes the human resources to the maximum extent. Secondly, the compensation should help the employees to maintain himself and his family with a standard in the society.

The organization has to ensure that there is an equitable pay structure between different categories of employees that will commensurate their nature of jobs performed.

2.2.3 Efficiency of performance
Assessment of efficiency level is accurate on where the output can be measured in quantitative terms. It is, therefore, proposed that improvement in the performance may be duly compensated by the increments granted yearly, while exceptional improvement in performance may be compensated by way of extra increments in the scale.

2.2.4 Incentive pay
This is the extra pay that is provided for extra performance in addition to the regular pay. Incentive schemes are managerial devices aimed at increasing the productivity of employees and overall job satisfaction.

2.2.5 Employment benefits
Workers have raised their expectation over the years and now feel entitle to benefits that were once considered a part of the bargaining process. They want a share in the profits of the organization in addition to medical, housing and welfare facilities.

2.3.0 Working conditions
According to Walton, the QWL is nothing but provision of a work environment absolutely free form various hazards arising out of natural and unnatural things. He further emphasizes the need for reasonable hours of work, favorable physical conditions of work, age restrictions e.t.c. to be followed by the organizations. In India for example there is the Factories Act, 1948 and several other labour laws which provide the various rules and regulation of protecting the workers from the health hazards at the working site.

A good working environment, delivering good care and autonomy in the work are the dimensions of job satisfaction leading to quality of work life. Providing good care contributes greatly to job satisfaction and hence quality of work life.

Taking the case of Kenyan EPZ workers as summarized by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, in NAIROBI, 9 March 2004 (IRIN) - An estimated 36,000 people toiled under harsh conditions in Kenya's Export Processing Zones (EPZs), according to Kenyan NGOs
Hired on short-term contracts, the workers strive to fulfill production quotas, often without maternity or sick leave. They face stiff penalties for mistakes, the NGOs said.

The EPZs were set up by the Kenya government as industrial parks to facilitate the mass production of export goods, mainly textiles for the international market. The NGOs say workers there put in long hours just to earn enough to get by and nobody can leave the workplace before fulfilling their quotas.

Inside a typical EPZ garment factory, workers are placed in several categories. These comprise sewing machine operators who do the actual stitching of seams in clothing; helpers who sort through the clothing and remove loose threads; quality controllers, who inspect the end product for defects; and supervisors.

The machine operators, helpers and quality controllers work while sitting or standing for between eight and 12 hours daily, with only a 45-minute break in between, in order to fulfil the quota set by the supervisors. Their daily pay is between US $1.90 and $2.20, but a percentage is deducted ostensibly for social security or hospital insurance contributions, which rarely benefit them, the workers complain.

Often, the machines get hot and, without ventilation, the workers are constantly in a state of extreme discomfort. The story is similar in the food industry, where few workers are enrolled in health schemes, and have hardly any savings, according to the workers.

They cite cases in which workers, especially pregnant women, have collapsed or fallen seriously ill after long hours of hard work. This obviously had a serious bearing on employees quality of work life and shortening of their lifespan.

In the United states they argue that for them the most fundamental working condition is the chance of death on the job. In every society workers are killed or injured in the process of production. While occupational deaths are comparatively rare overall in the United States today, they still occur with some regularity in ocean fishing, the construction of giant bridges and skyscrapers, and a few other activities.

For all United States workers the number of fatalities per dollar of real (inflation-adjusted) GNP dropped by 96 percent between 1900 and 1979. Back in 1900 half of all worker deaths occurred in two industries—coal mining and railroading. But between 1900 and 1979 fatality rates per ton of coal mined and per ton-mile of freight carried fell by 97 percent.

This spectacular change in worker safety resulted from a combination of forces that include safer production technologies, union demands, improved medical procedures and antibiotics, workmen's compensation laws, and litigation. Ranking the individual importance of these factors is difficult and probably would mean little. Together, they reflected a growing conviction on the part of the American people that the economy was productive enough to afford such change. What's more, the United States made far more progress in the workplace than it did in the hospital. Even though inflation-adjusted medical expenditures tripled from 1950 to 1970 and increased by 74 percent from 1975 to 1988, the nation's death rate declined in neither period. But industry succeeded in lowering its death rate, both by spending to improve health on the job and by discovering, developing, and adopting ways to save lives. This has led to high quality of life leading to longer life spans which is far fetched in the third world countries.

2.4.0 Training and Development
Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing particular jobs.
2.4.1Provisions of Autonomy as well as control for developing human resource
As the nature of work has become highly monotonous, today the worker becomes more mechanical towards the machines and lacks controls on them. According to Walton, when sufficient autonomy as well as control are given to workers, who I turn will use their innate skills and abilities for developing the organization; it will lead to improvement of QWL in the organization.
2.4.2 Scope for better career opportunities
Now-a-days, workers are not only concerned with their pay prospects, but also the scope for improving their technical and academic skills. Therefore, it becomes imperative on the part of the management to provide facilities for improving such skills. The management should always think of utilizing the existing human resources for expansion and development of the organization.
2.4.3 Job enrichment
It attempts to provide a person with exciting, interesting stimulating and challenging work. In other words, it improves the quality of the jobs. This motivates the employees with higher level needs.
2.4.4 Opportunity for Growth/Development of Careers and Career paths
Opportunity for growth is important for achievement oriented employees. Career refers to a sequence of positions occupied by an individual during the course of a lifetime. Career paths involve a matching process embracing the elements of individualism, organization and the broader cultural environment. Management may effectively perform this function by taking into account the life cycles of individuals, the needs of the organization and the society, and the norms and values of the broader culture. If the employees are provided opportunities for their advancement and growth and to develop their personality, they will feel highly motivated. Their commitment to the organization will also increase.

The benefits of training according to Saleemi (1997) include:
(i) Improvement of the quantity and quality of work output. As a result the productivity and performance of the organization increases.
(ii) Uniformity of procedures. Through training the work is standardized as taught to all employees. This helps to improve the quality of performance.
(iii) Less learning period
Training helps to reduce the time and cost required to reach the acceptable level of performance. The workers will not waste time in learning by trial and error.
(iv) Manpower development
Training enables the organization to fill manpower needs. It provides a reservoir of competent replacements and prevents managerial obsolescence.
(v) Economy of materials and equipment.
Trained employees make better and economical use of materials and equipment. Wastage on materials and tools is reduced. At the same time industrial accidents and damage to equipment are minimal.
(vi) Less supervision
Training helps to reduce the need for close and constant supervision of workers.
(vii) High morale
Training helps improve job satisfaction and morale of employees. As their productivity increases there is an improvement in their earnings and career prospects.

2.5.0 Stress
Stress is the adverse psychological and physical reactions that occur in individuals as a result of their being unable to cope with the demands being mad eon them. It is triggered not by the external problems faced by individuals, but by the way they cope or fail to cope with those problems. (Cole, 1995). Further Cole asserts that improving work environment provides the best opportunity to improve employee satisfaction with their work environment. Such work environment improves stressful situations and it involves:

• Leadership
• Developmental opportunities
• Career advancement opportunities
• Individual recognition
Sources of Stress
It is estimated that many Kenyan employees may suffer from exposure to bullying and harassment at work. It prevails in both private and public organizations and finds its victims among men and women alike. Studies also show that exposure to bullying at work is a severe source of stress at work and may be a crippling and devastating problem for those exposed.
A victim of bullying at work seems to produce severe emotional reactions such as fear, anxiety, helplessness, depression and shock. It appears to alter the victims’ perceptions of their work-environment to one of threat, danger, insecurity, and self-questioning, which may result in pervasive emotional, psychosomatic and psychiatric problems.
Moral harassment also has negative effects on the organization and lowers productivity in the workplace.
Bullying refers to all situations where one or more people feel subjected to negative behaviour from others at work over a period of time and in situations where, for different reasons, they are unable to defend themselves against these actions. Typically, a victim is constantly teased, pursued, and insulted and perceives that he or she has little recourse to retaliate in kind. We may distinguish between work-related bullying such as being exposed to unreasonable deadlines, unmanageable workloads or other kinds of behaviour that make the work situation difficult for the victim, and bullying that is primarily related to the person, such as insulting remarks, excessive teasing, gossip and rumours, social isolation and exclusion. This kind of behaviour is common and has been experienced by most people at work from time to time.
In actual fact workplace harassment is an omnibus list of unfair and uncalled for persecution in the workplace that can take many forms in its expression and execution. It is not limited to sexual harassment, per se, though sexual harassment is a major component of the harassment that goes on in offices and other establishments, world wide. It could relate to and be caused because of sex, religion, creed, ethnicity, physical appearance or just plain dislike. It is a form of offensive treatment or behaviour, which to a reasonable person creates an intimidating, hostile or abusive work environment. It may be sexual, racial, based on gender, national origin, age, disability, religion or a person's sexual orientation. It may also encompass other forms of hostile, intimidating, threatening, humiliating or violent behaviour, which are offensive or intimidatory in nature.
Some examples of behaviour, which can be said to definitely constitute moral harassment, are as follows: the unwelcome touching of a personal nature, which can encompass leaning over, cornering or pinching; sexual innuendos, teasing and other sexual talk such as jokes, personal inquiries, persistent unwanted courting and sexist put-downs; Slurs and jokes about a class of persons, such as persons who are disabled, homosexual or a racial minority; display of explicit or offensive calendars, posters, pictures, drawings or cartoons which reflect disparagingly upon a class of persons or a particular person; derogatory remarks about a person's national origin, race, language, accent; disparaging or disrespectful comments even if unrelated to a person's race, colour, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability or sexual orientation; or Loud, angry outbursts or obscenities directed toward another employee, student, customer, contractor, or visitor in the workplace. (Harassment Policy, 2004)
Even the detailed list of examples of harassment is not exhaustive and perpetrators can constantly think up new ways of tormenting their victims. Harassment can occur in numerous ways, some of which will be obvious but there will be others, quite subtle and difficult to explain. Further examples of harassment are the withholding of information which can affect the victim’s performance, ignoring views and opinions, setting unreasonable/impossible deadlines, giving unmanageable workloads, humiliating staff in front of others, being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous rage. As such, harassment can take various shapes and forms and can manifest itself in the unlikeliest of situations.
There has been extensive research work and study on the issue, some of which reveal that while bullying is a very real problem for a large number of people at work, the extent of bullying appears to be a particular problem in some sectors, “For example, a nationwide study of staff in the NHS found that three in five people have witnessed bullying at work in the past two years.” (Unison, 2003) Reports suggest that it is becoming increasingly common in education, police and voluntary sectors. “A survey carried out by Staffordshire University in 1997 found that two thirds of members had experienced or witnessed bullying”. (Unison, 2003)
All the above bring about stress which has a direct impact on the quality of work life of an employed.
2.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
As we have seen quality of work life is influenced by several factors, of which the relationship among them can be derived. The relationship between dependent and the independent variables as per this study can be derived as below.
Adequate compensation

Working conditions

Job satisfaction


Training and development

Stress

2.7 CRITIQUE OF LITERATURE REVIEW
It is true that much has been written concerning QWL and how productivity can be maximized. Various scholars have identified several employee needs that need to be met so as to maximize employee satisfaction.
It is important to note that all these scholars have approached this study from a more general point of view, without tailoring it to a particular organization.
Management of organizations is not static such that the way firms were managed 100 years ago is the same way they have to be managed today. Organizations operate in a dynamic environment in which employee needs keep on changing and the emphasis on each need keep on changing.
Proper management will obviously lead to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction emphasizes on behavioral aspects of the job rather than specialization, to increase productivity. This in essence does not mean that specialization has lost importance as a means of increasing production.
This research aims at evaluating QWL in Moi University in a tailored manner so as to suit this institution in isolation. This research aims at consolidating the previous findings on QWL in the context of Moi University.

C H A P T E R T H R E E

RESEARCH DESIGN AN METHODOLOGY

3.0 Research Type
This study adopted a case study research method. In this method, the investigator typically observes the variables under study without manipulating them (cohen and Manion) 1992) This design is appropriate for the study because it does not allow for the manipulation of the variables. The study employs the use of a questionnaire.

3.1 The study area

The study is carried out in Moi University, Main Campus, which is one of the Public Universities in Kenya in the Central Administration and Personnel Department.

3.2 Research Design

A research design entails the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It will be concerned with finding out how QWL is practiced to administration department. The accessible population used is both simple random and stratified sampling since the target population is extensive.

The extensive and the detailed nature of the data collected justified the use of this research design. The design was based on the assumption that population surveyed was a representative of the whole population. Questionnaires were issued on the sampled population.
The study suffers time deficiency due to its extensive nature but this will not be significant enough to invalidate the study.

3.3 Target Population

The target population will include senior, middle and junior staff of administrative department in Moi University. Sampling will be necessary since the department consists of many people.
Summary of instrumentation of the data collection
Generally, the research instrument proved to be effective and reliable to the study.

3.4 Sampling design and size
In this research stratified sampling techniques will utilized. It will be used to select the senior, middle and junior officers from which to collect the information from. This will lead to selecting the targeted 30 officers. This is from the population from which the study was carried out Kerlinger (1983:129) states that purposive sampling is characterized by the use of judgment and a deliberate effort to obtain a representative sample by including presumably typical areas of the group in the sample.

The stratified sampling techniques is generally important because it will give the researcher a chance to select the place which he/she feels best for him and can offer the best information for example Moi University Campus .

3.5 Data collection methods

The study uses questionnaires as tools of data collection. This method is suited due to the nature of the data needed in this study. It enables one to collect the different views and opinions as well as quantitative data. Questionnaires will be issued to the management of the organization who are literate people hence no difficulties when answering questionnaires.

Observation
Normal operations in the firms will be observed to determine the level and extend to which quality of work life is being practiced in the Administrative division.


3.5.1 Questionnaires
Structures questionnaires will be used as a means of data collection from the
selected population. A questionnaire is a data collection instrument in which the respondent is supposed to fill in the questions provided by the researcher I his/her absence. The questionnaire was issued to the Senior, Middle and Junior staff members of Moi University

Advantages
• It can be kept for future reference.
• The respondent does not fear because he is alone
• Questions guide on the way to answer
• It does not take so much of the researcher’s time.

Disadvantages
• It is expensive to print them out
• Some may not be returned hence it becomes unreliable
• There is no contact between the researcher and the respondent
• researcher cannot provide guidance on the difficult questions

3.6 Data collection procedures
The researcher will personally visit the department with the research tool. The questionnaire will then be administered to each respondent. On completion of the questionnaires, he will then collect the questionnaires from the respondents for data analysis.

3.7 Scoring of the research instruments

The questionnaire consists of various categories of questions and scales. Most using either 4 or 5 linkert scale format. The respondents are instructed to tick an appropriate box for each question. An open – ended question was also included.

Data collected will then be presented in the form of graphical representations, pie charts, tables and measures of central tendencies.
3.8 Data organization and analysis

Data analysis entails the computation of certain measures along with the search for patterns of relationships that exists among the data collected.
Inferential analysis techniques will applied in analyzing questions in the questionnaires that apply rating scales. This makes it possible to use quantitative analysis to rank the subjective and intangible components in the research.
Information collected in the interviews and open ended questions will be analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistical methods such as percentages and frequencies. The analyzed data is to be presented using, frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts as appropriate.
To analyze the data effectively Statistical Package for Social Sciences will be used.

3.9 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF DATA
To achieve reliability and validity of the data collected, and increase the response rate, questions were designed effectively, structuring questionnaires well, and undertaking a pilot study. Reliability of questionnaires allowed accurate data to be collected and ensured that the data collected was consistent.
When administering the data collection instrument the researcher first conducte3d the administration department to gain their cooperation, explained the purpose of rhe study and assembled key contact information. Data instruments were personally administered because of providing assistance to respondents to answer questions correctly and ensured quick response to questionnaires.

4.0 EXPECTED OUTCOMES
The researcher expected accurate and reliable which can be applied in improving QWL of employees at all levels of management.

QUESTIONNAIRE
I am abonafide student of Moi University in the school of Business and Economics. Am currently carrying out a research in partial fulfillment of my degree course in Bachelor of Business Management Finance and Banking option. The research topic is “ An evaluation of quality of work life” A case study of Moi University administration department.

I kindly request to be provided with the necessary data to make this research a success. The information provided will be treated with confidence.

This questionnaire consists of four parts. Please complete each part as directed.

(A) This part deals with adequate and fair compensation.

i. According to your understanding, is what you earn on the job related to the efforts you put in? (a) YES (b) somehow (c) not aware (d)NO
ii. Is what you earn on your job adequate to take care of all your needs?
(a) Very enough (b) just enough (c) not enough at all

iii. Do you think that what you earn is in a way related to what other employees in other organizations doing similar jobs earn? (a) yes (b) no (c) don’t know
iv. Do you contribute towards pension?
(a) Yes (b) No
v. What can you say about your allowances and fringe benefits?
(a) Very good (b) Good (C) Bad (d) very bad
vi. Do you have other jobs beside this one?
(a) Yes (b) No


(B) This part deals with working conditions at the work place.

i. Are you provided with adequate tools and equipment to get your work well done?
(a) Very enough (b) just enough (c) not enough at all
ii. How often does your equipment break?
(a) Very often (b) Often (c) Rarely (D) Never
iii. How long does it take to fix or repair broken or damaged equipment?
(a) A day (b) Week (c) Month (d) More than a month
iv. Are there health hazards at your work place?
(a) No (b) Yes
Which ones
v. What can you say about:
(a) Ventilation at your work place

(b) Light at your work place


(c) Working space at your work place
(C) This section deals with training and development of employees.

i. Do you usually do specialized tasks on your job or is your job specialized?
(a) Specialized (b) Unspecialized
ii. Does your job require that you keep learning new things?
(a) Yes (b) No
iii. Since you got your current job have ever attended training or gone for further study or increased your capacity in any other way? Explain

iv. In the past five years have you ever been promoted?
(a) Yes (b) No
v. What was the cause of your promotion?

vi. How do you cope with the current dynamic information technology world of today?


vii. Do you use your skills, knowledge and experience fully on your job? Explain


(D) This section deals with stress at the work place.

i. Have you or do you ever get stressed at the work place
(a) Yes (b)No
ii. How often do you usually get stressed? explain


iii. What is usually your main cause of stress?
(a) Workload (b) Organization structure (c) family (d) performance standards (e) others. Name them
iv. As per your opinion, do you know what you are expected to do on your job?
(a) Yes (b) No (c) somehow
v. What management style does your organization apply?

vi. Have ever been caught on the wrong side of the law?
(a) Yes (b) No
vii. Did you like how the situation was dealt with? (a) No (b) Yes ; Explain

viii. How do you manage the roles of your job and the family at the same time?

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS CONCLUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

5.1 INTRODUCTION.
This chapter discusses the data analyzed and presented in chapter four. Every objective of the study is analyzed differently.

5.2 ADEQUATE AND FAIR COMPENSATION

Data analysis shows that there is some equity in employee compensation. This means that the rewards that employees get are in a way related to their input. However this is not absolute as shown by 17% of the responses. These 17% claim that rewards are not consistent with the job evaluation.
Most employees (58%) earn enough to cater for their needs. The research reveals that compensation alone can not adequately take care of all employee needs. As aresult of this, most employees (60%) operate other businesses as an additional source of income. Examples of such businesses are transportation ( Matatus) and shops. Most employees in lower level management said that what they earn is hardly enough to take care of their needs.
It was discovered that senior management have no problem with benefits and allowances such as housing allowance, travelling allowance etc.lower level employees get small amounts of these allowances. There exists a very big gap between the different management level.

CONCLUSION
Generally employees of Moi University are not badly off in terms of compensation. They are above average compared to the economic environment of our country and that of the institution. All higher level management are well paid than subsequent lower level employees. This is partly because they are more experienced, have many responsibilities or have served longer in the organization. Most lower employees hold low academic credentials such as diplomas and certificates. They also do not have much experience and knowledge. They have not worked for very long for the organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Although compensation is a cost on the institution, it can be used in a way that it yields competitive advantage to the university. It can be used in a way to:
a. Attract capable employees to the university
b. Motivate employees to give superior performance
c. Retain employee services over an extended period of time.
This will encourage innovation and creativity among the workers and when this happens, the university will prosper. The university should consider revising its pay structure and pay level so as to achieve the above objective. The university should manipulate this expensive tool so as to reach greater heights.

Higher compensation usually comes with more responsibilities and productivity which depend on capabilities of the employees. I recommend that employees should take it upon themselves and expand their abilities through training and education. They should demonstrate this through outstanding performance so that their efforts can be easily seen among many people. By so doing they will be promoted and receive more rewards.
With the current economic crisis, pay levels may not change very much, incase they will. I recommend that employees should invest heavily elsewhere as pay slip alone may not solve all their financial needs.
Those employees who solely focus on the pay slip should start thinking on how no become employers through their investments. Investments in the financial markets and the stock markets does not need their time to manage them yet have a good reward. These investments will not interfere with their current jobs.

5.3 WORKING CONDITIONS

The analysis of data has shown that all employees are at least provided with necessary tools and equipment to do their jobs. It is important however to not that not all employees have all what they need to do their jobs. If the university was to provide every employee with all they need to do their jobs, it will be pretty expensive. To solve this equipment such as photocopiers and printers were shared. There are also central places where employees can print and photocopy. This is also good for social reasons.
The general working environment is good. The lighting system is good. Working rooms are well ventilated as they in addition to having windows also have fans. There are no generally health hazards such as sharp items, slippery floor etc.
The working space in most offices is squeezed. This is because there are a lot of files containing documents kept there. This has occupied a lot of working space causing congestion in most offices.
The other problem was spoiled machines that had not been repaired for long but were kept in these offices thereby occupying too much space.
When machines break down it takes long for them to be fixed. Employees complained that they have to wait for a long time before these machines can be replaced or the necessary inputs such as ink can be bought. This slows down the work and employees sit idle doing nothing, yet at the end of the month they are paid even for the unworked hours. This is costly to the organization.

CONCLUSION

Though the working conditions are good, they are not optimal. Working conditions automatically affect productivity of employees and hence profitability of the organization. The unutilized capacity of workers due to delays in replacement of damaged equipment can cost the organization a lot.
Moi university can exploit the working conditions in such a way that they yield competitive advantage for it.

RECOMMENDATIONS

For the university to operate optimally, it has to harness maximally all the resources and minimize unnessessary loses.
I recommend that all the faulty equipment shoulb be repaired so as to be put in use. This will reduce the idle time wasted due to default machines.
The machines that can not be repaired should be disposed off so that they don’t occupy space unnessessarily in the offices. This will reduce congestion in the offices.
It is important to note that machines are bought using finances. When capital is tied up in idle investments without return it is a loss to the organization.
Stores should be also be availed on workers just in time when they are needed. This will prevent work from becoming standstill due to lack of stores.
Vast amounts of office space is occupied by folders and files. I recommend that it is time that Moi university embraces the new technology by computerizing its systems. When files are stored electronically they are easy to keep and they also occupy small space. Bach up storage facilities such as DVDs, CDs, Flash disks etc can be utilized to store documents.

5.4 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.

The research shows that jobs that are performed by employees of Moi university administrative department are not very specialized. They consist of various tasks that need different skills to be performed. Employees therefore can initially enhance their skills.
However with time, employees master these jobs and they become repetitive and unable to continue enhancing their skills.
It was discovered that most employees have taken the challenge to advance their education. They are therefore pursuing degrees and master degrees. This however is their personal initiative because they have discovered that for them to be promoted or to earn better pay they have to advance themselves.
Responses shown that employees in the lower level management have little opportunity to fully utilize their skills and knowledge because they have limited scope of responsibility. Those employees higher in the ladder utilize their skill and knowledge better because they have a lot of responsibilities. They have also held most positions in the past and have developed the skills well. They are therefore more experienced than the lower level management.
The research also has shown that, promotion is mostly linked to capabilities of individuals and duration of service in the university. This means that those employees who have served in the university for long are likely to be promoted as opposed to those who have not worked for long.
Those individuals with higher academic qualifications are also promoted faster than those with lower academic credentials.

CONCLUSION

Training and development is going on in the university. The nature of jobs themselves in the university administrative department provide some training to the employees. However it must be recognized that, those employees who solely rely on the university to be trained and developed may lose because promotions do not come always. Job enrichment and enlargement or even job rotation may not be a good alternative as their applicability is limited in certain circumstances. The university encourages its employees to develop their skills by subsidizing tuition for its employees who would like to further their education within the university.

RECOMMENDATIONS

For employees to become innovative, creative and adaptive in this contemporary business age, they need to be fully developed. A good employee does not only do what he or she is required to do , the way it is required to be done, but also seeks out innovative but cost reducing methods that finally yield superior performance.
For employees to be secure in their jobs, they need to be well developed. No employer can dispense so easily an employee who is strategic in the organization by his outstanding performance or possession of some technical unique skill.

Promotions in today’s world are based on performance. In fact the issue of performance contract has already penetrated most public sectors; let alone private sectors.

All the above: innovativeness, job security and promotion come as a result of a deliberate effort by the employee to develop himself.
The heavy burden lies on the employees than the university. They should take personal efforts and decide to develop themselves as organizational efforts alone can not develop them fullest.

5.5 STRESS

Data analysis revealed the presence of stress. So stress is a daily component of work. Some stress if health at the work place as it stimulates much efforts and keeps workers on toes.
As we can see no one is always stressed, neither can we say that there in one who lacks stress at all.

Work load as a source of stress has not emerged eminently. About 25% of employees are stressed by work. It was discovered that this stress is not solely contributed by the amount of work, but by factors that cause the work to accumulate and pile up.

Such factors included equipment that is in bad condition, such as damaged computers and photocopiers. Accumulation of work was also caused by absence of stores such as printing papers, ink. By the time these problems are finally solved, work would have accumulated such that it causes stress to accomplish it.

Work overload is also caused by the fact that some employees are attending classes and at the same time working. This means that they have a lot of responsibilities as compared to the time available for them to tackle these assignments. Stress may also floe from class work to the office, due to assignments and hard course work.
Organization structure in Moi university is another stressor. It is long and complicated. Employees complained that, if a requisition is made to acquire certain items or a voucher is to be signed, it takes a very long period of time than expected. This is because, these documents have to be signed by various signatories who, may at that time be there or not. This causes delays and makes a lot of work to stand still. In some cases, employees have to personally follow up their requisitions or documents to make sure that they are being attended to and that they don’t get lost.

Stress was also caused by role conflict between jobs and families. Employees are family people who have other challenges at home to face. When these challenges remain unsolved, they cause stress at the work place. An example is a misunderstanding among spouses.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

The inconveniences due to delays caused by the organization structure should be ironed out by centralizing power and authority in few people. This will reduce the bureaucratic and lengthy procedures that tend to waste time and cause delays.
Published: 2009-03-14
Author: Aggrey Nzomo

About the author or the publisher
I am a graduate of Moi university kenya in Linguistics and Foreing languages. I am aged twenty two and a good narrative and descriptive writer. i currently write with an online company the Allwriting.net. i have with me finished poems and short stories. i also write sex episodes and i have four episodes so far. i am a single male of an African origin.

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