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Satan is the central figure, basic symbol and supreme source of evil, iniquity and wickedness according to the teachings and mythology of all the three Abrahamic religions i.e. Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Holy Scriptures of these religions emphatically declare Satan as the transgressor and God's nemesis who refused to comply with the commands of the Creator—Almighty God the Omnipotent.

Satan, according to these sources, is one among the jinn; a creature has been made by the Lord out of flame of the fire. The Holy Quran says: “He (Lord) created man from dry clay like earthen vessels, And He created the jinn of a flame of fire.” (55:15) At another occasion Satan’s disobedience has been described in the Holy Quran in these words: "Behold! We said to the angels, 'Bow down to Adam': they bowed down except Iblis [Satan]. He was one of the Jinns [spirits with a free-will], and he broke the Command of his Lord. (18:50) Satan has also been discussed in the Holy Bible in many places, as the Job describes: “And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.” (Job 1:7) In another occasion the Holy Bible demonstrates the anger of God’s angel on Satan: “The angel of the Lord said to the Satan, "May the Lord rebuke you, the Satan, may the Lord rebuke you, He who has made Jerusalem His very own. Is not this man a brand snatched from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2)

There is no incident or clue in Scriptures which can show evidence for Satan’s defiance and disobedience to the Lord before the creation of man. On the other hand, Satan was once one of the most regular worshipers of the Almighty God and seldom blew off his obligations regarding prayers. As soon as Almighty God created man and ordered the angels and the jinn to bow before Adam as the token of respect for the knowledge Adam was bestowed upon, it was Satan who refused to bow before the creature which was, according to him, an inferior one to him. In the words of the Holy Quran: “[Allah] said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you to?" He [Iblis] replied, "I am better than him. You created me from fire and You created him from clay.” (7:12) It evidently reveals the very fact that Satan’s pride led him go astray from the right path of obedience and glory driving him towards perpetual humiliation and disgrace. In addition, he was also proved as the arch enemy of mankind. Satan was extremely arrogant and thought himself the superior being. He considered bowing before Adam against his pride and revolted against the Lord of heavens and the earth. Satan’s rebellious attitude has been narrated at another place in the Holy Quran in these words: “He (Satan) said, I will not bow before a human being whom You have created out of dried clay formed from putrid black mud.” (15:33)

The Holy Scriptures including the Holy Torah, the Holy Bible and the Holy Quran clearly state that Satan did never deny the existence of God, nor did he ever try to worship someone other than God. Moreover, he did not claim to be equal to the Lord or worthy of worship. Instead, he defied God’s imperative of bowing before a creature which was bestowed with the knowledge and vigilance. “In the Torah”, Scheib submits, “the word Satan indicates “accuser,” “hinderer,” or “tempter.” Satan is more an obstacle in one’s way, such as temptation and evil doings, keeping them from completing the responsibilities of tikkun olam (fixing the world). Satan is our evil inclination to veer off the path of righteousness and faithfulness in God.” Milton has also expressed the malice of Satan in his wonderful Paradise Lost. According to him:
“Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt, And disobedience: On the part of Heav'n Now alienated, distance and distaste, Anger and just rebuke, and judgement giv'n, That brought into this World a world of woe, Sinne and her shadow Death, and Miserie Deaths Harbinger: Sad task, yet argument Not less but more Heroic then the wrauth Of stern Achilles on his Foe pursu'd.” (Book IX: lines 7-15)

Furthermore, Satan maintained grudge and enmity for the whole mankind and intended to entice Adam, Eve and their children forever and ever till the Day of Resurrection out of sheer malice for the human beings. According to the Torah, Satan does not challenge Almighty’s powers; rather, he challenges God to examine the sincerity and compliance of Adam, Eve and their generations. “However”, Scheib argues, “Satan remains inferior to God and is incapable of taking action on mortals without God’s permission. In the Talmud and Midrash, Satan appears as the force in the world, responsible for all sins.” He considered humans the cause of his expulsion from the heavens and the high status he enjoyed before the creation of Adam and Eve. Satan’s enticement and seduction has been revealed in the Scriptures. Satan aimed at proving the humans as inferior creature most of which are transgressors and treacherous ones.

It is a fact beyond doubt that Almighty God is the Lord of the Empyrean and all-Powerful as well as Omnipotent. Satan knew his limitations and powers before Almighty God; it is therefore, Satan begged from the Lord time till the Day of Resurrection to seduce the children of Adam and Eve as he seduced their first parents leading towards their expulsion from the Eden Garden. God had complete command over the past, present and future of the whole universe. He does never slumber nor sleep. In addition, He knew that Satan would rebel against His command; He also had knowledge what would happen after the creation of man. But He yearned to prove that there would be born pious people that would comply with all His instructions and commands making them their code of life. God wanted to scrutinize the good from the evil. It is therefore He bestowed upon Satan the promised time to entice and tempt the mankind. The holy lives of the Prophets and saints prove the very notion that the feet of such great personalities could never be shaken or trembled even by the utmost effort of Satan while conveying the sacred message of God to mankind.

Religion is found in almost all human cultures, societies and civilizations from most primitive Paleolithic and Neolithic to the most modern ones of today. Religious beliefs, teaching and believe in someone Supernatural has been in the spirits, souls, hearts and minds of humans. They describe their religious practices in everyday life as well as in their art, culture and literature. Satan is also one of the central figures in many religions as it is the metaphor of evil and symbol of rebellion and disobedience. Artists draw its pictures in drawing and paintings; sculptors prepare his sculptures; poets create lyrics and verses to define him and writers also personify Satan as the devil and source of destruction, decay, defoliation and dejection. In the contemporary world, films have been prepared which reveal this character as the eternal foe of mankind. Satan is the part of our belief, so we discuss his role and personality from different forums, whenever and wherever we get an opportunity for that all.


• Al-Rehman. Chapter 55 The Holy Quran
• Job, The Holy Bible
• The Holy Torah
• Milton, John. Paradise Lost. Book IX 1667
• Scheib, Ariel. Satan. Jewish Virtual Library
Published: 2007-09-29
Author: Mujtaba Haider Zaidi

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MUJTABA HAIDER ZAIDI (Award-winner research-writer USA)
To make hard efforts and seek more and more knowledge in the fields of Management/Research/Writing in an atmosphere where an appreciable opportunity can be sought out to reveal and utilize the best of my knowledge, skills and capabilities.
2004 LL.B University Of The Punjab, Lahore.
2003 M.A. English Literature University of the Punjab, Lahore.
1999 M.A. Sociology University of the Punjab, Lahore. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
11-10-1994----10-04-2002: Translator/Admin Officer, Moosa Publishers, Model Town, Gujranwala. 16 -04-2002----30-11-2002: Executive Qualitative Research/Translator, OASIS International Research Market Consultancy, Shaheed-I-Millat Road, Karachi.
09-01-2003----31-07-2004: Manager Administration/Co-ordination, STEP Foundation, 78-Y Commercial Phase-III, D.H.A. Lahore.
02-08-2004----Onward: Regional Co-ordinator, LIONIZEVE UK Immigration Consultants, Office No. 18 Hotel Pearl Continental, Club Road, Karachi. 05.01.2004----Onward: Freelance Writer/Poet, Writer’s ,, ---------------------------------------------------------------------
THESIS: LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES IN RELATION TO SOCIAL CLASS: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS: An unpublished M.A. thesis submitted to the Department of Sociology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR: A research work conducted keeping in view the pervert behaviour of the youth of Pakistan
PROBLEMS WHILE RESEARCH-CONDUCTING IN PAKISTAN: A Report written keeping in view the difficulties faced by the common Researchers.
BASELINE SURVEY OF STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT: A project under Institute of Education & Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THE VILLAGERS OF ABBOTTABAD AND MANSEHRA. An unpublished report submitted to the Department of Sociology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
POPULATION GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENT: An unpublished Report submitted to the Department of Sociology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
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