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Sundara Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana, Hanuman Lakshmana

Sundara Kanda is a section in the Ramayana which describes the exploits of Hanuman while he was entrusted with the responsibility of finding the whereabouts of Sita after she was carried away by Ravana. Ravana came disguised as a sadhu seeking alms and tricked Sita into crossing the line of safety that Lakshmana had drawn. How could a line offer ‘safety’ and safety against what? In a religious sense, i.e. adopting a believer’s outlook, the LakShmaNa Rekha[LR] was a line that LakShmaNa drew in front of the door of Rama and Lakshmana’s hut. He had requested Sita not to cross it, lest she fall a prey to any of the lurking dangers of the forest. The line becomes un-crossable for an external aggressor because Lakshmana is a tapasvi. A tapasvi is one who starves one or more of his senses or puts his body to extreme tests of endurance. One fall-out of tapas is control over nature. Now if one were to take a very social significance, the LR is the line of proper social behavior. In other words so long as one remains within the limits of socially proper behavior no ignominy could come.

Why does Ravana ask Sita to step out of the LR? His disguise would otherwise be exposed to Sita. Had Ravana stepped into the hut crossing LR himself Sita would have had the real vision of him as the dreaded rakshasa, and there would be no Ramayana and there would be no lesson for mankind. Rama and Lakshmana start off in search of Sita, befriend Sugriva on the way, and formalize their friendship by a treaty promising to work for mutual benefit. In the bargain Rama slays Vali, and reinstates Sugriva as the king of Kishkindha. In his turn Sugriva commands his hordes to go in search of Sita with a mandate of not to return if they have been unsuccessful.

Jambavan, Angada the son of Vali, and Hanuman followed by a few hundred Vanaras proceed in the southern direction and reach the sea shore. There is the Mount Mahendra which Hanuman uses as a launch pad to jump start his flight to Lanka. Valmiki’s description of the ‘effects’ of Hanuman’s application of ‘Newtonian’ action and the ‘reaction’ on Mount Mahendra show a very good appreciation of the magnitude of force required to take the flight[Canto – I Sh.13-29 and again Sh.35-40]. Since, there are no wings or means of propulsion for on-course addition of force, the situation similar to that of a cannon ball projectile motion obtain. The descriptions of the after-effects of Hanuman’s propulsive shot are very impressive. Then there is the description of the moment of propulsion of how he collects all his muscle-power to take the flight. One thing must be borne in mind. Hanuman is taken as a supernatural being. But, instead of simply stating that he wished to cross the ocean and he was there on the other shore, great pains have been taken to mix quite a bit of physics to the event! The route he takes is described by stating of how things appear to a being in flight.

Prior to his taking the flight to Lanka, Hanuman declares his intent and purpose and makes a statement of his dedication. “Here I go to Lanka ruled by Ravana, in search of Sita. If I do not happen to find her there, I shall proceed to the abode of the gods (heaven) with the same speed. If I do not find her there too, I shall get back to Lanka, I shall bind Ravana in ropes and bring him to Rama. I shall go back only if I accomplish the task. If it comes to that I shall dislocate (pull-out) the kingdom of Lanka (from the face of the earth) and bring it in one go to Rama. Here, we find the supernatural and the simple dedication to duty intermingled. One must not lose sight of the purpose of one’s task. The use of the various parts of the body to guide the flight to destination show Valmiki’s appreciation (even if in imagination) of the fundamentals of aeronautics – like the positioning of the anterior part of the body, the use of the tail as the rudder to guide the flight and the effect of wind zipping past him. Since Hanuman is the son of Vayu the Wind-god, he gets support in the form of free-floatation towards the destination. A storm follows Hanuman as he goes, creating vortices in parts of the sea below.

The beautiful and highly imaginative descriptions of Nature that intersperse every important event in this section of the epic justify the title of Sundara –Kanda for this part of the epic poem. It is said that Shri Rama wanted Valmiki to name this section after Hanuman, but humble Hanuman would never have it; thus the name Sundara was attached to the title to refer to Hanuman by his given name as it is also descriptive of the beautiful descriptions of Nature, that abound; Hanuman is an epithet that stuck to him after he was struck on the jaw by Indra’s Vajra, re-shaping his jaw.

While Hanuman is in flight Varuna - the god of the Seas goads Mainaka the son of Himavan [Himalayas-Mount Everest?] to arise out of the sea floor to ‘obstruct’ Hanuman’s flight. Here a legend is recounted, which betrays a peculiar knowledge of the continental drift and the geology of mountain formation. Of course the description is picturesque and with poetic license; mountains were supposed to be having wings and were flying around to obstruct human and animal movements. Indra chose to ‘divest’ them of their wings with the help of Vajra[The thunderbolt-the weapon of the God of Rain, Indra]. Mainaka, the son of Himavan, was one who just escaped Indra’s wrath by getting submerged in the ocean, another hint of geology that the ocean floor is home to mountains that could drown Mount Everest?

On the plea of offering a moment’s rest to Hanuman on Mainaka Valmiki brings in the idea of ‘adding’ propulsive force to Hanuman, by once again ‘pressing’ his feet and body against Mainaka. Mainaka is supposed to be returning a favor done to him by Vayu, Hanuman’s father, in the process winning the favor of Indra too, where he forgives, Mainaka’s escaping Indra’s dispensation of clipping of wings of the Mountains! The yarn is so beautifully spun. Varuna’s[Saagara’s] advise to Mainaka to be of help while ‘obstructing’ Hanuamn’s path is well-worded.

‘Serve him (Hanuman)’ Saagara says to Mainaka, “as a host, in such a manner that he doesn’t lose track of his job on hand, for you might anger the focused Hanuman should you overdo your hosting and delay him. It must happen so that, Hanuman takes a few moments rest and is on his task again.”

The next one to block Hanuman’s way was the Mother of Reptiles, Surasa. Hanuman first pleads her to give way. She says she has Brahma’s boon to obstruct Hanuman. Hanuman plays the game [the descriptions of happenings here are supernatural] well enough to enter her enormous mouth and exit unhurt, and obtains her blessings. The next one to come in his way is Simhika the demon of the nether world wanting to make a meal of him. Hanuman plays the way he did with Surasa, but knows this one to be a demon. He enters her mouth and exits breaking her heart to kill her. Landing on the other shore he takes a look at Lanka, which looks like the city of gods. He waits there till dark to slip inside unnoticed. He is caught by the embodiment of Lanka-puri. One could consider this as some kind of an auto-cop, an intruder-proofing system. She fights and loses to Hanuman, and thus confirming a prophesy - that the day she is overwhelmed by a monkey, the downfall of Lanka has begun. She wishes him good luck and gives way.

There is wisdom in Hanuman waiting till nightfall. He could have ridden roughshod over whoever opposed him and won too. But that would alert Ravana, and he could miss Sita. He did not want to spoil the chances of seeing Sita, so he lied low. His mission is to locate Sita and meet her in private. He cogitates on the pros and cons of what should be the right strategy to adopt. Here are some of the thoughts that cross his mind.

<1> Improper timing and choice of place, and carelessness on the part of an envoy could imperil the task undertaken like daybreak during an under-cover operation”. Sh2.39

<2> A decision taken when the odds against and those in favor aren’t yet completely understood doesn’t behoove an agent to act in haste considering himself to be a master. On the contrary they only defeat the purpose. Sh.2.40

He searches all of the Rakshasa households especially the palaces, sees several couples sleeping and perhaps half asleep in intimate postures. Yet he is unmoved. His mind is on his task. He has entered a forbidden area, he is a confirmed celibate. He says to himself, “Even though I have seen all Ravana’s women asleep after an orgy my mind does not go astray. Not one unbecoming thought crosses my mind”

Here, Valmiki leaves a message to the reader:

<3> the mind is the cause of the behavior of all of the other senses. For in situations fortuitous and inauspicious my mind stays untouched. Sh11.43

Finding fault with himself on searching in the wrong places for Sita he concludes:

<4>one should search for something in its natural habitat. One should not be searching for a woman among the does. Sh.11.45

He is pretty disturbed that he is nowhere near the goal and time is running out. In the meantime he goes through a lot of depression and tries to pep himself up by saying:

<5> an unperturbed mind is the root of all the riches and calmness is thus the way to happiness. It is calmness of the mind that leads one unfailingly to one’s goals. Sh.12.10
.. Calm and firm action is the secret of success in all endeavors. Hence, I shall choose the supreme path of unperturbed action. Sh.12.11

Finally, he finds Sita in the Ashoka-Vana. Yet he doesn’t conclude that the forlorn weak, grime-stuck but beautiful and regal looking woman is Sita the consort of Rama. He waits for confirmatory evidence. He stays hidden among the foliage of the Shinshupa Tree, assuming the shape of a common monkey. He takes several looks at her and compares notes with what he has heard Rama describing her. She finds her to be of such exquisite beauty that he justifies Rama’s laying waste of not only Lanka but the heavens and the earth for her.

He silently cries for the pathos that is the lot of Sita. If this fate of suffering privation at the hands of Ravana must befall Sita who is dear to such a great warrior as Rama and deserving of reverential awe of the strong Lakshmana then one must admit,” Fate is inexorable.”

Extolling the desirability of Sita Valmiki writes:

If one were to compare the kingship of the three worlds, with having Sita for oneself, the expanse of the three worlds is not worth a fraction of Sita the daughter of Janaka.

The description of the Rakshasa women as ugly-looking, ferocious, cannibals having just the fear of Ravana their Lord to stop them from tearing Sita and making a tasty meal of her looks like the exaggeration of a racist kind about someone who is powerful but needs to be vanquished. This just doesn’t gel with the descriptions of a majestic looking Ravana, later in the epic.

Ravana comes in the next morning to persuade Sita to accept him as her man. Sita the embodiment of Chastity refuses to buy any of his entreaties. On the contrary she rebukes him, and advises and pleads with him to surrender to Rama and returning her back to him. Rama, she says, would magnanimously pardon him. She threatens him with direst consequences and curses that Lanka would be destroyed should Ravana not backtrack and give Sita up. She scolds him, lashes out at him. All of this Hanuman listens to patiently sitting atop the tree, all the while confirming that this is the Sita he is looking for. Ravana then gives Sita a time of two months to surrender and accept him as husband. Should she not relent, he threatens, she will be cooked for his breakfast. This description of Ravana contradicts with the later descriptions of Ravana’s majesty and a countenance lit with Brahmin-like radiance, in a later chapter.

As seen by Hanuman too Ravana appears well-dressed, radiant and cultured but the inherent dislike for his actions makes Hanuman remark: a well-decorated statue adorning the garden of a burial ground is fearsome even if decorated beautifully.

Sita tells the rakshasa women guarding her that they desist from trying to win her favor for Ravana with the ultimate refusal of their enticements: She says, “He (Rama) may be poor. He might have been divested of his kingdom, he may be out of power but he who is my husband by marriage is my Lord.” In the Indian ethos, Sita epitomizes all that is womanly. For a married woman her husband is everything. He stands out despite his having any other qualification. But the question whither today’s India pops up. The Rakshasa women tell her, “Enough you have extolled your husband and shown your love to him. Look O! Noble woman, excess in anything is patently bad. Hanuman is disturbed by all that is happening but is still a mute spectator. Following intimidation by the rakshasa women Sita chooses to attempt suicide, though she is slightly reassured by the content of Trijata’s dream. Trijata, one of the rakshasa women staying in guard has a dream that the city of Lanka is destroyed by Rama’s army and Ravana lying dead with a garland of pink oleander* flowers. Then as she attempts to hang herself by her own long tresses not finding either a sharp weapon or poison close at hand. Even as she tries to end her life she has a few good omens, as precognition of the coming good. Hanuman having heard Ravana’s torture of Sita, and the ultimatum given her of a period of two months, resolves to reassure her of Rama’s efforts to find her. At this opportune moment, Hanuman, very thoughtfully, slowly, but surely starts out by relating the story of Rama beginning with his departure from Ayodhya to keep his father’s word, and right up to the point of kidnapping of Sita by Ravana. This makes her turn her head to spot Hanuman, sitting atop the tree.

This act of relating the story, from far is one of the best strategies used by Hanuman in communication. Should he have chosen to appear before her in however puny a form, she would still think of him as Ravana in disguise(a word being used for want of a better word for “with changed form” – the ability of a rakShasa to assume any form at will) or a rakshasa sent by him.

The spirit of the Sh2.39 and Sh 2.40 in <1> and <2> above is almost verbatim re-quoted in Canto 30 in Sh. 30.38 and 30.39

In Canto 32 as Sita hears the story of Rama as retold by Hanuman from atop the tree-She says to herself,” Is it real or am I dreaming?” “For one thing I am dreaming of a monkey, (which as per Indian Dream Interpretation has bad portents) but then the news he speaks of is good!”” Right now I am not sleeping, so this mustn’t be a dream. Troubled by sorrow and sadness I have lost the capacity to sleep, and missing the presence of the pleasing countenance of my man I have no pleasure in living.” “Perhaps, all this is a hallucination that has come about because of my constantly thinking of Rama all the time. I might be hearing voices and favorable stories just because of the constant association of my mind with Rama. Since I am filled with intense desire for Rama, I seem to be hallucinating like this.”

“It is my inmost desire so I think like-wise, and am building arguments in favor; how is it that a ‘wish or desire’ does not to have a form to behold whereas here he (Hanuman) sits with form that one can apprehend?” “Whatever be the reality I pray to the Lord of Words, to Indra, to Brahma, and to Agni-the Fire-god, that May whatever this monkey utters, come true and let it not be otherwise”. That was quite a bit of psychology from the pen of ancient Valmilki.

After giving the good news from his perch, hidden amidst the foliage, Hanuman comes down from the tree still in his puny form, ever as humble, falls at her feet, circumambulates her with his hands folded in salutation above his head-this is a cultural specialty reserved only for the most revered- and asks her to introduce herself. He has already concluded she must be Sita. But he wants her to identify herself. He expresses concern at her plight. He spells out his guesses of her lineage - all off the mark. His guesses are all noble and other-worldly. He then asks her of her father and brother and slowly, haltingly and with doubt homes on to, whether she was Sita who was kidnapped by the dreaded Ravana in Janasthana. At one point, Hanuman guesses that she might be,
Rama’s queen, going by her regal bearing, even though she appears stricken and is dressed like a recluse. The very mention of Rama’s name brightens her up and she gives a detailed introduction of her. But when hanuman tries to move closer to her she is still in doubt about the veracity of his claims of knowing Rama or being close to him. She still suspects him to be Ravana come to her assuming a different form. To counteract her suspicion Hanuman once again breaks into Rama’s praise and repeats how he had come across Rama. Once again introducing himself as Sugriva’s advisor, he tells her how he had crossed the sea to meet her. He pleads her to give up her doubt and listen to what he had to say.

With several entreaties from Hanuman she relents to listen to him and asks to be told about the story of the coming together of Rama and the monkeys. To reassure her Hanuman describes Rama’s physical features, in the manner of a poet. He talks of the friendship pact entered into by Rama and Sugriva egged on by the similarity of their predicaments. Vali had held Sugriva’s wife captive and so had Rama’s wife been carried away by Ravana. Rama had kept up his promise by slaying Vali and restoring Sugriva’s wife and kingdom to him. Now it was Sugriva’s turn to help Rama in finding Sita. When she felt reassured sufficiently by Hanuman, she trusted him and her beautiful wide eyes betrayed a sense of joy. Her face lit up like a moon that has come out of an eclipse. He then gives her Rama’s ring.

She gets into conversation with him and wonders why Rama has not sought her expeditiously. Hanuman replies to this by telling her that Rama is not yet sure of her whereabouts and will surely repair to begin his expedition on being informed of her presence in the city of Lanka. Hanuman offers to carry her to Rama on his shoulders. Sita first laughs it off quoting his juvenile and monkey-like nature and enthusiasm. Hanuman is a trifle disturbed that she hasn’t got faith in his ability though he had told her of how he had crossed the sea. He steps away from her and shows her his Enormous Form. Sita is wide-eyed enough to admit that he is capable, but then gives other reasons like She might fall-off his back as he crossed the sea while fighting the Rakshasas on his way back. Her final statement that she is the chaste wife of Rama who would not like contact with any male other than her husband convinces Hanuman that she must be redeemed only by Rama. Further she says, it is only proper and in the fitness of things that Rama redeems her after a war with Ravana, where he deserved to be slain.

Sita in her turn tells Hanuman an intimate incident which is only known to Rama and her. This is to help Hanuman recount to Rama, so that he is assured that it is Sita whom Hanuman had seen in Lanka. She also entrusts to him her crest-jewel as a physical identifier. It speaks volumes on Hanuman’s communicative ability to move Sita from an ever suspecting, twice-shy woman to trust him with a story depicting her intimacy with Rama! This transformation of her attitude towards her was worked at assiduously by Hanuman.

The parting words she tells Hanuman are:” Please present the facts to Rama, of my being alive and in words that goad him into action that befit his valor.” Hanuman asks her once again to rest assured that Rama will reach out to her at the earliest, even if it means fighting the elements or defying the god of Death. He says,”O! Daughter of Janaka! Rama would like to rule over all the land he surveys right up to the edge of the sea, why, his very need to be victorious is for thee.”

Sita asks him to take a day’s rest even though she would like him to reach Rama soonest.
Hanuman tells her of the valor and power of the monkey warriors. “The monkeys whom Rama has befriended, are tireless and indefatigable”, he says, and adds,” I am just the least powerful of them as the best would not be sent on such errands as these.” The way Hanuman humbles himself before everything is the greatest of his qualities. In the truest sense he does not want to brag about himself, though when it fits the situation he gives himself some due praise. It is the punctiliousness of Hanuman’s self-expression that one should learn from and emulate. He takes leave of her.

The next great activity he indulges in is the destruction of Ashoka Vana as a prelude and ruse to meet Ravana. Some of Hanuman’s thoughts before embarking on this act of destruction are worth mentioning.

<6> “There is just about something left undone now that I have met beautiful Sita, i.e. mission being accomplished. I must choose the fourth alternative jumping over the three others, yeah.” The four alternatives talked of in the Art of Political Jurisprudence are:
a> Saama- peaceful negotiation and reasoning
b> Dana- Inducements in lieu of confrontation
c> Bheda – Threatening (or Dividing?) the enemy and
d> danDa – The use of Force. Sh.41.2

<7> The route of negotiation, is better not taken with Rakshasas for it will not drive sense into them, nor is it worthwhile to give inducements to the rich and powerful. It is not possible to instill fear in those drunk with physical prowess and military might. Hence, I just would love to display my valor and show them a taste of the power (of their enemy).
<8> There is nothing other than valor and show of strength that could be more decisive with the Rakshasaa; losses suffered by some of their forces could only soften them up a bit.

<9> The real executive qualities are brought forth beautifully:“ He who accomplishes, more than what is expected of him without imperiling what just needs be done or what has already been accomplished, deserves to be commissioned for important tasks.” Sh. 41.5

<10> one who knows just one way of doing a task isn’t the best person even for the simplest of tasks. It is he who thinks laterally of the several possibilities is truly suited to be entrusted with the toughest of tasks. Sh.41.6

After duly considering the pros and cons of all his actions Hanuman decides to ravage the beautiful garden, thus sending twin messages of wanting to desperately meet Ravana and giving him a sneak-preview of things to come.

Hearing the news of this from the, Rakshasis guarding Sita, Ravana sends several generals and hordes of rakshasa warriors to capture him. All of them succumb to his prowess. Only Indrajit his eldest son succeeds, in binding Hanuman with the Brahmastra. The detailing of Hanuman’s exploits is not considered necessary in this write-up.

Indrajit learns through the battle that it is beyond his capacity to vanquish Hanuman in combat and that it is next to impossible to kill him. He has to be content with taking Hanuman prisoner. He uses the Brahmastra. Hanuman for his part thinks it is prudent, to get bound by Brahmastra and volitionally allow him to be taken prisoner, in deference to Brahma primarily and choose this as a means to be taken into Ravana’s presence.

Here Valmiki describes Hanuman’s state of mind. ”Here stands Hanuman, who is well-decided of his mission, a scorcher of his enemies, and one who acts only after thinking well, unruffled. He for one only celebrated his defeat and stood poised even as he was being threatened by his captors.

Ravana and Hanuman both in their heart of hearts think high of each other. Ravana doubts in his mind if he could be Nandi – Lord Shiva’s mount himself come to humble him. Hanuman, questioned by Prahasta, declares the purpose of his visit as having come on behalf of Rama the son of Dasharatha. He counsels him to return Sita and seek pardon from Rama. This suggestion incenses Ravana, who pushes aside his doubts to order Hanuman’s execution. He is chastised by his noble brother Vibhishana, who quotes texts on political jurisprudence again to advise Ravana against killing an emissary. If only Ravana wanted to punish the emissary as an intruder, he may choose to disfigure him. Ravana then chooses to set fire to Hanuman’s tail.

As the Rakshasa minions set fire to his tail and parade him on the streets, Hanuman chooses his next course of action: work destruction on the city of Lanka where most construction was shellac-coated. He jumps about and sets fire to all the great mansions save that of Vibhishana. After completing what he thought was expeditious- of giving the enemy a sneak-preview of what was to come, he is suddenly beset with doubts of having acted a bit in haste. He is worried that he might have endangered Sita defeating the very purpose of his visit. He is assured of the safety of Sita by the celestials. He beholds her to reassure himself that she is safe and then plans his exit from Lanka.

He launches himself once again from a suitable perch on a mountain-top. Valmiki promptly gives a bit of projectile physics and of Newtonian reactive forces as Hanuman launches himself on his return sojourn. Once he lands on the northern bank of the sea i.e. back on the mainland, Hanuman’s communication skills come to the fore.

To his peers and immediate monkey elders he displays his chivalry, by bragging about his exploits. He is very eloquent about his conquests and does not leave out even a single event, though he starts the conversation with them with the barest of essentials told in the most telegraphic form:”Saw Sita.”[To be precise: Sita was seen by me]. This has been the best example of purposeful communication in Indian Literature. The Canto 58 that follows his home coming is a brief on the goings on ever since he left the shore. Shorn of poetic details this is the best executive summary one could think of, for presentation to peers. This chapter happens to be a 166-poem summary of the entire Sundara Kanda.

The successful monkey-brigade then, fall back on their frivolous nature to celebrate their success by ravaging the august fruit orchard jealously guarded by Sugriva’s uncle. Here Valmiki’s steering the plot in the epic, to send a message to Sugriva of the successful accomplishment of the mission, without anyone going to him in person yet transmitting the message across without a channel, speaks of his ingenuity. Dadhimukha the chief of the guards informs Sugriva of the destruction of the prestigious orchard, but Sugriva gets the message and tells Lakshamana that the task has been accomplished!!

The character of Hanuman shines forth the way he reassembles the message depending on who is the receiver of the same. He cuts out all the bragging of his previous renderings and places only the essential facts, reserving the intimate anecdote related by Sita to Rama’s ears only. He tells Rama of the dire condition in which Sita is kept captive, of how he offered to carry her across on his shoulders to make Sita and Rama’s meeting possible soonest, and also recounts the grounds on which Sita had refused the offer.

This brings us to the end of Sundara Kanda. What was attempted in the foregoing was neither a poem-by-poem translation nor a summary. The important ideas expressed have been bought out. The details of the war-like exploits have been left out. The beautiful descriptions of nature that justify the title have not been talked of. The purpose of this expose is to give a sufficiently detailed introduction and to lay emphasis on Hanuman’s character, and what makes him a central character of Ramayana next only to Rama and Sita.

It is also the intention of the author to dwell a while on why this epic or parts of it are considered Mantras capable of offering succor to the faithful from their day-to-day problems. Evey chapter in the Ramayana has a closing statement: “Thus ends the chapter in the Rishi’s (Valmiki’s) 24000-(shloka) long samhita Srimad Ramayana.

The Bhagavad Gita’s chapters are extolled as ‘Upanishads’ making the Lord’s song as a Shruti. By calling The Ramayana’s chapters as Samhitas, the epic poem of Ramayana for the faithful is on par with Mantras. Vedic Mantras are potent weapons or problem-fixers.
Valmiki is crowned as a Rishi for he is unschooled, yet is the author of most revered and complete work. It is taken that the Lord has spoken through him.
Published: 2008-12-07

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A Senior Level Manager in a Power Utility Equipment Manufacturing Industry with a flair for writing

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