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Martin Hahn

Martin Hahn PhD has received his education and degrees in Europe in organizational/industrial sociology. He grew up in South-East Asia and moved to Europe to get his tertiary education and gain experience in the fields of scientific research, radio journalism, and management consulting. After living in Europe for 12 years, he moved to South-East again and has worked for the last 12 years as a management consultant, university lecturer, corporate trainer, and international school administrator

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Organizational Adaptation and Control
Managers have opportunities to respond to environmental factors in two ways: adaptation or control
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Predicting Future Profits
Managers who do not have information or have incorrect information about environmental factors, have a difficult time predicting external changes
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Role of Protective Legislation for Corporate Success
Many business firms seek to achieve consensus by encouraging protective legislation such as import quotas, tariffs, and licensing
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Impact of Turbulent Environments on Organizations
A low degree of turbulence reduces the need for managers to alter their operations.
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Organizational Response to Customer Dispersion
Organizations in a concentrated environment will realize more efficiency in their operations is
Category: Economy | Published: 2007-05-12


Homogeneous and Heterogenous Environments of Organizations
Organizations operating in homogeneous environments can specialize in producing one good or service to be distributed to the market
Category: Economy | Published: 2007-05-12


Organizational Environmental Stability
The longer an organization operates under stable environmental conditions, the more managers learn and the more able they are to reduce the number of mistakes
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Resources available to Organizations
Organizations usually start with rich resources and will later be confronted by limited resources
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


The impact of natural forces on corporations
Earthquakes, tornadoes, freezing rain, and hurricanes can have a big impact on companies
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


The Impact of Competition on Corporate Performance
Competition is a strong influence on the economic activity of an organization and often requires managers to make economic decisions
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


Technology in Organizations
Technology is often viewed as a major source of environmental change for an organization
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-05-12


The influence of social factors on organizations
The social domain of an organization's environment consists of societal values, attitudes, norms, customs, and demographics
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


The Political Domain of Organizations
The political domain of the organization environment rests on laws and regulations passed by governmental agencies and legislative bodies
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


The Economic Domain
Factors in the economic domain are important because they have implications for the ability of organization managers to get the resources needed to produce goods and services
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Environmental domains and dimensions
Six environmental domains that influence the activities of an organization are: economic, political, social, technological, competitive, and physical domains
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Oganization Context
Contextual conditions are important because they influence the methods by which managers can effectively use resources to plan, organize and staff, direct, and control organization activities
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Managerial Techniques
Managers should realize that no one method or technique is to be applied to all problems or situations
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Markets, Hierarchies, and Clans
Economist Oliver Williamson offers insight into how organizations can be inefficient in terms of costs
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Theory Z
The most common example of the application of the Theory Z approach is the use of quality circles
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Population Ecology Perspective in Management
According to population ecologists success can be attributed to being in the right place at the right time.
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Resource Dependence Perspective in Management
The resource dependence perspective developed a framework to explain why organizations are often forced to establish linkages with other organizations in their environment.
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Contingency Theory
Contingency theory is designed to provide the manager with the capabilities to examine numerous possible solutions to a problem
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


System Theory
Viewing an organization as a system of interdependent subsystems enables managers to comprehend more fully the implications of their actions.
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-12


Quantitative Management Theory
The advantages and disadvantages of quantitative methods for management are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-08


Behavioral Management Theory
The important contributions of several prominent psychologists known as the human relations movement are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


Weaknesses of the Classical Management Theories
The weaknesses of the classical management theories are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


Scientific Management
The most important teachings of the classical scientific management school are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


Administrative Theory
The typical characteristics of administrative theory and its role in the establishment of modern management theory are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


The Industrial Revolution
The role of the Industrial Revolution, Robert Owen, and Charles Babbage in the makings of modern management are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


History of management
The early history of management is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


Managerial Roles
The 10 roles of managers as defined by Mintzberg are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-06


Management Skills
Management skills consist of technical, conceptual and human skills
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-05


What Are Managers?
The most known three types of managers and their roles in organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-05


What Is Management?
This article discusses the main activities of management: planning, organizing and staffing, directing, and controlling
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-05


What Is an Organization?
The important roles of organizations in society are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-05


The Context of Management
The external and internal contexts or influences on management are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-05-05


Competitors and Pricing
The term competitive pricing can be defined as a price-setting policy where the going rate set by competitors is used as a reference point
Category: Business (General) | Published: 2007-04-30


Market Pricing and Marginal-Cost Pricing
Two methods to determine price are discussed in this article: market pricing and marginal-cost pricing
Category: Business (General) | Published: 2007-04-30


Pricing to Achieve Target Profits
Companies are not profit maximisers but are seeking satisfactory levels of profit
Category: Business (General) | Published: 2007-04-30


Standard Cost Pricing
Determining price with accounting method called standard cost pricing is simple but will only cause profits to go down
Category: Business (General) | Published: 2007-04-30


Break-even Analysis
The break even analysis is a useful tool to determine price and quantity of products which needs to be set in order to get a feasible return of investment
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-30


The Importance of Manufacturing Costs – Cost-plus Pricing
The most common method of calculating price is cost of manufacturing
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-30


The Economist's View of Price – Market Pricing
According to economists, price is determined by the law of supply and demand
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-30


What is Price?
Price is determined by buyers and sellers trying to finf the right kind of value
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-30


Product Development
Five types of consumers who react to new products are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


Screening of New Product Ideas
The complex process of screening new product ideas is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


To make or not to make new products
The advantages and disadvantages of launching a completely new product in the market are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


The Need for Product Innovation
The strategy of launching new products from old products as a type of product innovation is discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


Market Segmentation
The most common types of market segmentation are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


The Product Portfolio Matrix
How to market the product in a continuous manner through modifications and escaping from the product life cycle limitations is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-29


The Product Life-Cycle Concept
The main thesis of this article is about the necessity to keep all products under review to assess their present and likely future contribution to profits
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


Reasons for Changes in Customers' Needs
Customers' needs change due to several important factors and those factors are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


The Management of Products
The various different products and services are defined and described in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


How Marketing Research is Conducted
The necessary and critical steps in conducting marketing research are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


Sources of Marketing Research Data
The various sources of marketing data in the form of collecting primary and secondary data are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


The Origins of Marketing Research
Origins and methods of marketing research are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


Why Marketing Research is Necessary
Marketing research is necessary to make te future happen and to reduce the risks of uncertainty
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-28


Conformity, Cohesiveness, and Deviance in Organizational Settings
Three processes are described in this article on organizational group behavior: conformity, cohesivenss, and deviance
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-27


Group Norms in Organizations
Understanding how group norms develop and why they are enforced is important to managers. Group norms are important determinants of whether a group will be productive.
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-27


Group Formation in Organizations
Group development and formation in organizations are discussed in this article.
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-27


Group Structure in Organizational Setting
The typical characteristics of group structure in organizational setting are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-27


What Is a Group in organizational settings?
The most important reasons for group formation in organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-24


Consequences of Organizational Commitment
The most important consequence of organizational commitment in turnover which is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-24


Factors determining Organizational Commitment
The most important factors which determine commitment in organizations are describe in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-23


Organizational Commitment
The definitions and characteristics of commitment in organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-23


7 Strategies for Socialization in corporations
The most important seven strategies for socialization in corporations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-22


How People Are Socialized in corporations
The steps of socialization in corporations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-22


Organizational Socialization
The methods and techniques of socialization are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-22


Distinguishing Countercultures and Subcultures
The advantages and disadvantages of corporate subcultures and countercultures are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-22


Identifying Organizational Culture
The question of diagnosing organizational culture is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-22


Strengths and weaknesses of organizational culture
The general methods to identify the degree of strength and weakness of corporate culture are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


Corporate Culture as Symbolic Interaction
Symbolic interactions or rationalizations by managers is the definition of corporate culture explained in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


Corporate Culture as Rites and Ceremonials
In this article, corporate culture is defined as a complex set of rites and rituals
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


Corporate Culture as Myths, Stories, and Other Manifestations of Language
In this article, corporate culture is defined as manifestations of myths, stories and language
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


Corporate Culture as Shared Norms, Beliefs, and Values
Corporate culture is seen a complex mixture of shared norms, beliefs, and values
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


The Cultural Context of Organizations
In this article the influence of societal culture on organizational culture is analysed
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


What Is Organizational Culture?
The most important characteristics of organizational culture are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-21


Top historical facts about Golf
The history of the game of golf is sketched in this article
Category: Golf | Published: 2007-04-21


Facts about martian ice
This article explores the possibilities of human settlements on mars facilitated by presence of water in the form of ice
Category: Technology | Published: 2007-04-21


How to cope with social stress
Ways to deal with social stress are discussed in this article
Category: Mental Health | Published: 2007-04-21


What is hormone therapy?
The advantages and disadvantages of hormone therapy are discussed in this article
Category: Women's Issues | Published: 2007-04-21


Key facts about adjustable rate mortgages
Some facts related to adjustable mortgages are discussed in this article
Category: Mortgage | Published: 2007-04-21


Top 5 historical facts of the U.S democratic party
The most important historical facts of the democratic party are discussed in this article
Category: Politics | Published: 2007-04-21


Top 5 historical facts of republican party
The most important five historical facts of the republican party are discussed in this article
Category: Politics | Published: 2007-04-21


Finding summer camps for adults
The possibilities of summer camps for adults are discussed in this article
Category: Nature & Outdoors | Published: 2007-04-21


Top 5 facts about arthritis
The facts and myths about arthritis are discussed in this article
Category: Pain Management | Published: 2007-04-21


The anatomy of hurricane Katrina
The devastating effects of hurricane Katrina are discussed in this article
Category: Earth Science | Published: 2007-04-21


Structuring of organizations: recent theories
Three most recent theories on the structuring of organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Determinants of Organizational Structure
The factors which determine the structure of organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Dynamic Models of Organizations
Loosely coupled model and self-designing model are two examples of dynamic models of organizations
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Communication Roles in Network Organizations
The most important communication roles in the network organization is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Characteristics of the Network Organization
The flexibility of the network organization is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Organization Structures in Different Countries
The main topic in this article is the structure of organizations in different countries: are they the same or not?
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Types of Organizational Structures
Several major types of organizational structures are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Centralization in Organizations
Centralization is the most important aspect of power distribution in any organization
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-17


Formalization in Organizations
Formalization of rules and procedures in organizations is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-15


Complexity as the most known characteristic of organizations
Complexity of organizations reflected in vertical and horizontal differentiatons is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-15


Size as a determinant of organizational structure
The influence of organizational size on its structure is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


What is organizational structure?
The importance of organizational structure is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


A managerial guide to assessing effectiveness
Seven guidelines to realize corporate effectiveness for managers are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Measuring Corporate Effectiveness
The aspects related to measuring corporate effectiveness are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Models of organizational effectiveness
The complex issue of organizational effectiveness is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Business Goals and Ethics
The ethical dimension of business goals is being discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Organizational effectiveness
The critical factors leading to organizational excellence are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


A systems perspective of organizations
The advantages of the systems view of organizations are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The Function and Dysfunctions of Goals
The most important roles of corporate goals are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The formulation of goals
Corporate goals are formulated with the past experiences and power relationships in the organization in question
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Goal Formulation and Changing Goals
The formulation of corporate goals is a complicated process influenced by the members of the corporation in question
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Formal versus real goals
The advantages and disadvantages of formal and real corporate goals are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The importance of an overarching goal
A mission statement in a corporation is important to motivate its members
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Typologies of goals
Several types of goals of business corporations are discussed briefly in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Formation of organizations
The primary goals of business enterprises are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Improving the quality of decisions in companies
The various sources of data for decision making in companies are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Decision making in Companies
The types of decision making in profit enterprises are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Management by Objectives (MBO)
The advantages and disadvantages of management by objectives is discussed
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Management in non-profit organizations
The characteristics of profit management have infiltrated the world of management in non-profit sector
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Business policies
Business policies are important to execute all tasks in a corporate entity and achieve all its objectives
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The stakeholder theory: corporate responsibility as the prime objective
The opposite of the shareholder approach in business is the stakeholder approach or the corporate responsibility perspective
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The shareholder’s perspective: profit as the prime objective
The most convenrional perspective of businesses is discussed: prfitability
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Nature of business objectives
The nature and advantages of business objectives are discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Strategic Planning: Position or situation analysis
The methodology of strategic planning for companies is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Analysis of Risk and Sensitivity
Businesses must know more about the future and instruments like risk analysis and sensitivity analysis are useful instruments
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Business Forecasting
The characteristics of business forecasting is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


Corporate planning
The aspects and issues related to corporate planning is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The Function of Planning in Management
Management cannot be implemented in a sa tisfactory way without planning
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-14


The Marketing Mix in the 21st century
The 4Ps should at least be supplemented by the 4Cs in the world of marketing
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


The Marketing Concept
The revolutionary marketing concept introduced in the 1960s is discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Special Marketing Situations
Industrial marketing and marketing services are being discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Service in the Marketing Mix
The 4Ps of the marketing mix can only be successful if added with the s of service
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Need for Marketing Concept
The marketing concept has been an important pillar in modern management
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Marketing Mix Decisions
Marketing Mix consists of 4Ps and it is very important to find the right mix to sell successfully
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


History of Marketing
This article briefly sketches the history of marketing
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Consumer Behavior
The behavior of consumers buying the many different products in the market is discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


What is marketing?
The definition and activities of marketing are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


The Marketing Mix
The famous formula of marketing of the 4Ps is discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


The Competitive Situation
Perfect and imperfect competition are discussed in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Social Marketing
This article is about the rise and development of social marketing or the marketing of public services
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Marketing is not selling
The confusion between marketing and selling is disentangled in this article
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Marketing Process
This article discusses the main aspects of the marketing process which is trying to connect the producers with the consumers
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Marketing Environment
This article discusses the marketing environment: customer needs, competition, technology, legilsation, and the national economy
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Market and market mechanisms
The aspects of profitability and efficiency which are dominant in the private sector have now infiltrated the public sector
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Critiicisms of Marketing
This article discusses some critiques aimed at marketing which must be taken into consideration in a serious manner
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Cases of Marketing Mixes
This article discusses the application of the famous 4Ps of marketing in the practical reality of the market place
Category: Marketing | Published: 2007-04-14


Physical Design as a Static Structural Element of Organizations
One of the static structural elements of organizations is physical design and this is the main topic of discussion in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-11


What Is Organizational Structure?
The characteristics of organizational structure is discussed in this article
Category: Management | Published: 2007-04-11


Systems theory and cybernetics
the history and development of systems theory and cyberbetics are discussed in this article
Category: Hardware | Published: 2007-04-10


Entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship
Difference between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship is discussed in this article
Category: Entrepreneurial | Published: 2007-04-10



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